Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI)

Further Information and Web Resources

Biology and General Info

Great Lake States


New York








United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Department of the Interior:

Great Lake States? Cooperative Extension





New York


Miscellaneous Resources

Various Great Lakes Watershed Council Websites

Distribution and Herbarium Information



Management Plans

State Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plans

(PDF's housed at the Great Lakes Commission)



Aquatic Invasive Species Policy, Action Plans, and Risk Assessment

Nature Conservancy Press

Army Corps of Engineers EWM Reports

MTU Associated Presentations, News, etc.


Abernethy, V., M. Sabbatini, and K. Murphy. 1996. Response of Elodea canadensis Michx. and Myriophyllum spicatum L. to shade, cutting and competition in experimental culture. Pages 219-224? Management and Ecology of Freshwater Plants. Springer.

Adams, M. S., J. Titus, and M. McCracken. 1974. Depth distribution of photosynthetic activity in a Myriophyllum, spicatum community in Lake Wingra1. Limnology and Oceanography 19:377-389.

Agami, M., and Y. Waisel. 2002. Competitive relationships between two water plant species: Najas marina L. and Myriophyllum spicatum L. Hydrobiologia 482:197-200.

Aiken, S. G., P. R. Newroth, and I. Wile. 1979. THE BIOLOGY OF CANADIAN WEEDS.: 34.Myriophyllum spicatumL. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 59:201-215.

Allan, J. D., P. B. McIntyre, S. D. Smith, B. S. Halpern, G. L. Boyer, A. Buchsbaum, G. Burton, L. M. Campbell, W. L. Chadderton, and J. J. Ciborowski. 2013. Joint analysis of stressors and ecosystem services to enhance restoration effectiveness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110:372-377.

Barko, J. W., M. S. Adams, and N. L. Clesceri. 1986. Environmental-Factors and Their Consideration in the Management of Submersed Aquatic Vegetation - A Review. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 24:1-10.

Barko, J. W., and R. M. Smary. 1980. Mobilization of sediment phosphorus by submersed freshwater macrophytes. Freshwater Biology 10:229-238.

Barko, J. W., and R. M. Smart. 1981. Comparative Influences of Light and Temperature on the Growth and Metabolism of Selected Submersed Freshwater Macrophytes. Ecological Monographs 51:219.

Barnes, M. A., C. L. Jerde, D. Keller, W. L. Chadderton, J. G. Howeth, and D. M. Lodge. 2013. Viability of aquatic plant fragments following desiccation. Invasive Plant Science and Management 6:320-325.

Bates, A. L., E. R. Burns, and D. H. Webb. 1985. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) in the Tennessee-valley: an update on biology and control. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on watermilfoil:104-115.

Beardmore, B. 2014. Boater Perceptions of Environmental Issues Affecting Lakes in Northern Wisconsin. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association:n/a-n/a.

Boylen, C. W., L. W. Eichler, and J. D. Madsen. 1999. Loss of native aquatic plant species in a community dominated by Eurasian watermilfoil. Pages 207-211? Biology, Ecology and Management of Aquatic Plants. Springer Netherlands.

Bruckerhoff, L., J. Havel, and S. Knight. 2014. Survival of invasive aquatic plants after air exposure and implications for dispersal by recreational boats. Hydrobiologia 746:113-121.

Canny, L. L. 2007. Determining Aquatic Macrophyte Response to Human Perturbation in Watersheds and along Lakeshores of Wisconsin Lakes and the Tolerance Levels of Individual Species to Environmental Gradients. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Carpenter, S. R. 1980. Enrichment of Lake Wingra, Wisconsin, by submersed macrophyte decay. Ecology:1145-1155.

Chadde, S. 2002. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora: A complete guide to the aquatic and wetland plants of the Upper Midwest. Pocketflora Press Laurium, Michigan.

Chaplin, G. I., and J. F. Valentine. 2009. Macroinvertebrate production in the submerged aquatic vegetation of the Mobile?Tensaw Delta: effects of an exotic species at the base of an estuarine food web. Estuaries and coasts 32:319-332.

Coble, T. A., and B. Vance. 1987. Seed germination in Myriophyllum spicatum L. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 25:8-10.

Coffey, B. T., and C. D. McNabb. 1974. Eurasian water-milfoil in Michigan. Mich. Bot 13:159-165.

Couch, R., and E. Nelson. 1985. Myriophyllum spicatum in North America. Pages 8-18 in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and related Haloragaceae species. Aquatic Plance Management Society, Washington, D.C.
Dale, H., and T. Gillespie. 1977. The influence of submersed aquatic plants on temperature gradients in shallow water bodies. Canadian Journal of Botany 55:2216-2225.

Dhillon, M. S., M. S. Mulla, and Y.-S. Hwang. 1982. Allelochemics produced by the hydrophyteMyriophyllum spicatum affecting mosquitoes and midges. Journal of chemical ecology 8:517-526.

Duffy, K. C., and D. M. Baltz. 1998. Comparison of fish assemblages associated with native and exotic submerged macrophytes in the Lake Pontchartrain estuary, USA. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 223:199-221.

Eiswerth, M. E., S. G. Donaldson, and W. S. Johnson. 2000. Potential Environmental Impacts and Economic Damages of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in Western Nevada and Northeastern California1. Weed Technology 14:511-518.

Elakovich, S. D., and J. W. Wooten. 1989. Alleloputhic Potential of Sixteen Aquatic and Wetland Plants. Toxicology 17:129-182.

Elser, H. 1967. Observations On the Decline of the Water Milfoil and Other Aquatic Plants, Maryland, 1962-1967.

Engel, S. 1987. The impact of submerged macrophytes on largemouth bass and bluegills. Lake and Reservoir Management 3:227-234.

Environment, B. C. M. o. t. 1981. A summary of biological research on Eurasian water milfoil in British Columbia. Aquatic Plant Management Program. Information Bulletin, Vol. IX. Page 18 in W. R. B. British Columbia Department of the Environment, editor., Victoria, B.C. .

Ervin, G. N., and R. G. Wetzel. 2003. An ecological perspective of allelochemical interference in land?water interface communities. Plant and Soil 256:13-28.

Ferling, E. 1957. Die Wirkungen des erh?hten hydrostatischen Druckes auf Wachstum und Differenzierung submerser Bl?tenpflanzen. Planta 49:235-270.

Fleming, J. P., and E. D. Dibble. 2015. Ecological mechanisms of invasion success in aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia:1-15.

Frodge, J. D., G. Thomas, and G. Pauley. 1990. Effects of canopy formation by floating and submergent aquatic macrophytes on the water quality of two shallow Pacific Northwest lakes. Aquatic Botany 38:231-248.

GAO. 2000. Invasive Species: Federal and Selected State Funding to Address Harmful, Nonnative Species.

Gerloff, G. C. 1975. Nutritional ecology of nuisance aquatic plants. National Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency.

Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada.

Glomski, L. A. M., K. Wood, R. Nicholson, and C. Lembi. 2002. The search for exudates from Eurasian watermilfoil and hydrilla. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 40:17-22.

Golubic, S. 1963. Hydrostatischer Druck, Licht und submerse Vegetation im Vrana-See. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie 48:1-7.

Grace, J. B., and Robert G. Wetzel. 1978. Production biology of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.): a review. J. Aquat. Plant Manage 16.

Gross, E. 1999. Allelopathy in benthic and littoral areas: case studies on allelochemicals from benthic cyanobacteria and submersed macrophytes.

Gross, E. M., H. Meyer, and G. Schilling. 1996. Release and ecological impact of algicidal hydrolysable polyphenols in Myriophyllum spicatum. Phytochemistry 41:133-138.

Hartman, R. T., and D. L. Brown. 1967. Changes in Internal Atmosphere of Submersed Vascular Hydrophytes in Relation to Photosynthesis. Ecology 48:252-258.

Haynes, R. R. 1988. Reproductive biology of selected aquatic plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden:805-810.

Horsch, E. J., and D. J. Lewis. 2009. The effects of aquatic invasive species on property values: evidence from a quasi-experiment. Land Economics 85:391-409.

Hutchinson, G. 1970. The Chemical Ecology of Three Species Of Myriophyllum (Angiospermae, Haloragaceae) 1, 2. Limnology and Oceanography 15:1-5.

Jacobs, J., and J. Mangold. 2009. Ecology and Management of Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Invasive Species Technical Note No. MT-23:6.

Jerde, C. L., M. A. Barnes, E. K. DeBuysser, A. Noveroske, W. L. Chadderton, and D. M. Lodge. 2012. Eurasian watermilfoil fitness loss and invasion potential following desiccation during simulated overland transport. Aquatic Invasions 7:135-142.

Jones, R. C., K. Walti, and M. S. Adams. 1983. Phytoplankton as a factor in the decline of the submersed macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum L. in Lake Wingra, Wisconsin, USA. Hydrobiologia 107:213-219.

Keast, A. 1984. The introduced aquatic macrophyte,Myriophyllum spicatum, as habitat for fish and their invertebrate prey. Canadian Journal of Zoology 62:1289-1303.

Killgore, K. J., R. P. Morgan, and N. B. Rybicki. 1989. Distribution and abundance of fishes associated with submersed aquatic plants in the Potomac River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:101-111.

Kimbel, J. C. 1982. Factors influencing potential intralake colonization by Myriophyllum spicatum L. Aquatic Botany 14:295-307.

KISMA: Keweenaw Invasive Species Management Area. 2013. 4th KISMA Steering Committee Meeting Notes from January 16, 2013 (March 13, 2013 Version).

Korner, S., and A. Nicklisch. 2002. Allelopathic Growth Inhibition of Selected Phytoplankton Species by Submerged Macrophytes1. Journal of Phycology 38:862-871.

Kovalenko, K. E., and E. D. Dibble. 2014. Invasive macrophyte effects on littoral trophic structure and carbon sources. Hydrobiologia 721:23-34.

Lillie, R. A., and J. Budd. 1992. Habitat architecture of Myriophyllum spicatum L. as an index to habitat quality for fish and macroinvertebrates. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 7:113-125.

Lind, C. T., and G. Cottam. 1969. The submerged aquatics of University Bay: a study in eutrophication. American Midland Naturalist:353-369.

Lloyd, D. G., and C. Webb. 1986. The avoidance of interference between the presentation of pollen and stigmas in angiosperms I. Dichogamy. New Zealand journal of botany 24:135-162.

Love, A. 1961. Some notes on Myriophyllum spicatum. Rhodora 63:139-145.

Lovell, S. J., S. F. Stone, and L. Fernandez. 2006. The economic impacts of aquatic invasive species: a review of the literature. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 35:195.

Madsen, J., and C. Boylen. 1989. Eurasian watermilfoil seed ecology from an oligotrophic and eutrophic lake. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management JAPMDB 27.

Madsen, J. D. 2005. Eurasian watermilfoil invasions and management across the United States. Currents: The Journal.

Madsen, J. D., L. W. Eichler, and C. W. Boylen. 1988. Vegetative spread of Eurasian watermilfoil in Lake George, New York. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 26:47-50.

Madsen, J. D., J. Sutherland, J. Bloomfield, L. Eichler, and C. Boylen. 1991. The decline of native vegetation under dense Eurasian watermilfoil canopies. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 29:94-99.

Martin, C. W., and J. F. Valentine. 2011. Impacts of a habitat-forming exotic species on estuarine structure and function: an experimental assessment of Eurasian milfoil. Estuaries and coasts 34:364-372.

Martin, C. W., and J. F. Valentine. 2012. Eurasian milfoil invasion in estuaries: physical disturbance can reduce the proliferation of an aquatic nuisance species. Marine Ecology Progress Series 449:109-119.

Martin, C. W., and J. F. Valentine. 2014. Sexual and asexual reproductive strategies of invasive Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in estuarine environments. Hydrobiologia 727:177-184.

Mcalarnen, L. A., M. A. Barnes, C. L. Jerde, and D. M. Lodge. 2012. Simulated overland transport of Eurasian watermilfoil: survival of desiccated plant fragments. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 50:147-149.

Mickle, A. M. 1975. The comparative mineral nutrition of nuisance aquatic plants. University of Wisconsin—Madison.

Morris, C., P. R. Grossl, and C. A. Call. 2009. Elemental allelopathy: processes, progress, and pitfalls. Plant Ecology 202:1-11.

Nakai, S. 2000. Myriophyllum spicatum-released allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting growth of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa. Water Res 34:3026-3032.

Nakai, S., Y. Inoue, M. Hosomi, and A. Murakami. 1999. Growth inhibition of blue-green algae by allelopathic effects of macrophytes. Water Science and Technology 39:47-53.

Newman, R. M. 1991. Herbivory and detritivory on freshwater macrophytes by invertebrates: a review. Journal of the North American Benthological Society:89-114.

Newroth, P. R. 1985. A review of Eurasian water milfoil impacts and management in British Columbia.in Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and Related Haloragaceae Species.

Nichols, D. S., and D. R. Keeney. 1976. Nitrogen nutrition of Myriophyllum spicatum: uptake and translocation of 15N by shoots and roots. Freshwater Biology 6:145-154.

Nichols, S., and S. Mori. 1971. The littoral macrophyte vegetation of Lake Wingra: an example of a Myriophyllum spicatum invasion. Trans. Wisc. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett 59:107-119.

Nichols, S. A. 1975. Identification and management of Eurasian watermilfoil in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 63:116-128.

Nichols, S. A., and B. H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131:3-21.

Olden, J. D., and M. Tamayo. 2014. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values. PLoS One 9:e110458.

Pardue, W. J., and D. H. Webb. 1985. A comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrates occurring in association with Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) with those found in the open littoral zone. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 3:69-79.

Patten, B. C. 1954. The status of some American species of Myriophyllum as revealed by the discovery of intergrade material between M. exalbescens Fern. and M. spicatum L. New Jersey. Rhodora 56:213-225.

Patten Jr, B. C. 1955. Germination of the seed of Myriophyllum spicatum L. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club:50-56.

Perkins, M. A., and M. D. Sytsma. 1987. Harvesting and carbohydrate accumulation in Eurasian watermilfoil. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 25:57-62.

Phillips, G., D. Eminson, and B. Moss. 1978. A mechanism to account for macrophyte decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters. Aquatic Botany 4:103-126.

Pimentel, D. 2005. Aquatic nuisance species in the New York State Canal and Hudson River systems and the Great Lakes Basin: an economic and environmental assessment. Environmental Management 35:692-702.

Pimentel, D., S. McNair, J. Janecka, J. Wightman, C. Simmonds, C. O?connell, E. Wong, L. Russel, J. Zern, and T. Aquino. 2001. Economic and environmental threats of alien plant, animal, and microbe invasions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 84:1-20.

Pimentel, D., R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics 52:273-288.

Planas, D. 1981. Ecological significance of phenolic compounds of Myriophyllum spicatum. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21:1492-1496.

Provencher, B., D. J. Lewis, and K. Anderson. 2012. Disentangling preferences and expectations in stated preference analysis with respondent uncertainty: The case of invasive species prevention. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 64:169-182.

Reznicek, A. A., and E. G. Voss. 2012. Field Manual of Michigan Flora. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Rice, E. l.(1984): Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York.
Rockwell, H. W. 2003. Summary of a Survey of the Literature on the Economic Impact of Aquatic Weeds. The Economic Impact of Aquatic Weeds.

Rosaen, A., E. Grover, C. Spences, and P. Anderson. 2012. "the costs of aquatic invasive species to the great lakes states". Anderson Economic Group, LLC.

Smart, R. M., and J. W. Barko. 1986. Effects of Water Chemistry on Aquatic Plants: Growth and Photosynthesis of Myriophyllum Spicatum L.: Final Report. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.

Smith, C. S., and J. W. Barko. 1990. Ecology of Eurasian watermilfoil. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 28:55-64.

Smith, R. A. 2010. Use of an aquatic weevil, Euhrychiopsis lecontei, as a biological control agent against Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) in Michigan?s Les Cheneaux Islands.

Stanley, R. A., and A. W. Naylor. 1972. Photosynthesis in Eurasian Watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.). Plant Physiology 50:149-151

Titus, J. E. 1977. The comparative physiological ecology of three submersed macrophytes. University of Wisconsin.

Titus, J. E., and M. S. Adams. 1979. Coexistence and the comparative light relations of the submersed macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Vallisneria americana Michx. Oecologia 40:273-286.

Toetz, D. 1997. Does Eurasian watermilfoil, Myriophyllum spicatum, contribute to the diet of animals in a turbid reservoir? Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12:545-551.

Valinoti, C. E., C.-K. Ho, and A. R. Armitage. 2011. Native and exotic submerged aquatic vegetation provide different nutritional and refuge values for macroinvertebrates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 409:42-47.

Valley, R. D., and R. M. Newman. 1998. Competitive interactions between Eurasian watermilfoil and northern watermilfoil in experimental tanks. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 36:121-126.

Van, T. K., W. T. Haller, and G. Bowes. 1976. Comparison of the photosynthetic characteristics of three submersed aquatic plants. Plant Physiology 58:761-768.

Wilcove, D. S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. BioScience:607-615.

Xue, P., D. J. Schwab, and S. Hu. 2015. An investigation of the thermal response to meteorological forcing in a hydrodynamic model of Lake Superior. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120:5233-5253.

Zhang, C. W., and K. J. Boyle. 2010. The effect of an aquatic invasive species (Eurasian watermilfoil) on lakefront property values. Ecological Economics 70:394-404.