All XRF users must review the general safety rules for ACMAL.

ACMAL Safety

XRF Safety

SEM/TEM Radiation

SEMs can produce x-ray radiation as a result of high energy electrons interacting with the metal in the column. The amount of x-ray radiation produced depends largely upon the accelerating voltage applied to the electron beam. It will be greater for accelerating voltages attainable with the TEM (> 100 kV). All facility SEMs and TEMs have internal shielding and interlock systems, however, which protect the user from x-ray radiation. Michigan state law requires that these systems be inspected and maintained regularly, so that users need not take additional precautions during operation.


All XRF users must review the general cleanliness rules for ACMAL.

ACMAL Cleanliness

XRF Cleanliness

  • Pack all powder samples over a piece of paper to catch any spills. All residue materials left on the benches or tables will be discarded. In addition to the need for a clean laboratory, some powders are hazardous.
  • Do not leave samples in the sample holders unless you will be running them again in a very short period of time.
  • All powder samples left in the laboratory should be in a container with identification on the container. Unidentified samples will be treated as highest level of hazardous waste.
  • Please clean sample holders, glass slides, packing rams, and the work area where the sample was prepared.
  • Do not remove sample holders or sample preparation equipment from the laboratory. This includes spatulas, squeeze bottles, packing rams, glass slides, etc. Other users depend on this equipment being available. If you feel it is necessary to have your own holder (or your powders are corrosive) you must have one custom made.

Standard Operating Procedures

All XRF users must review the general SOPs available for ACMAL.



Available training, either as a course or an online resource, is noted for each XRF instrument.