Federal and State Nondiscrimination Laws and Regulations

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972

Is a law prohibiting discrimination based on sex in educational programs that receive Federal funds. It states: “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving... [Learn More]

Violence Against Women Act

Is a law that creates and supports comprehensive, cost-efficient responses to domestic violence, sexual assault, dating violence and stalking.

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex in all areas of employment.

Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex in any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.

Civil Rights Act of 1991

Amends the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to strengthen and improve Federal civil rights laws, to provide for damages in cases of intentional employment discrimination, to clarify provisions regarding disparate impact actions, and for other purposes.

Equal Pay Act of 1963

Protects men and women who perform substantially equal work in the same establishment from sex-based wage discrimination.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967

Protects individuals who are 40 years of age or older from employment discrimination based on age.

Age Discrimination Act of 1975

Nondiscrimination on the basis of age in programs or activities receiving Federal financial assistance.

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Prohibits disability discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities.

Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990

Prohibits disability discrimination by public entities, including public colleges and universities whether or not they receive Federal financial assistance.

Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009

Amends Title VII, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the ADA and the Rehab Act to clarify the time frame in which victims of discrimination may challenge and recover for discriminatory compensation decisions or other discriminatory practices affecting compensation.

Executive Order 11246 

Requires certain government contractors to engage in affirmative action and to not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex.

Section 503 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

Requires affirmative action and prohibits employment discrimination by Federal government contractors and subcontractors with contracts of more than $10,000.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

No qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that either receives Federal financial assistance or is conducted by any Executive agency or the United States Postal Service. [learn more]

Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974

Prohibits employers with federal contracts and subcontracts from discriminating in employment against protected veterans and requires employers take affirmative action to recruit, hire, promote, and retain these individuals.

Civil Rights Act of 1866 & Civil Rights Act of 1871 - CRA - 42 U.S. Code 21 §§1981, 1981A, 1983, & 1988

All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other. (Timeline 1866,1870,1871)

Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)

An act to prohibit discrimination on the basis of genetic information with respect to health insurance and employment. Under Title II of GINA, it is illegal to discriminate against employees or applicants because of genetic information.


State Laws

Elliott-Larsen Civil Rights Act of 1976 

Prohibits discrimination in employment, education, housing, public accommodation or public service based on religion, race, color, national origin, age, sex, marital status, height, weight, arrest record, or handicap. Persons denied equal opportunity based on these conditions may file a complaint with the Michigan Civil Rights Commission.

Michigan Ethnic Intimidation Act of 1988

Provides criminal law protections from individuals who threaten or actually cause physical contact or damage to persons or property because of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.

Michigan Persons with Disabilities Civil Rights Act

An Act to define the civil rights of persons with disabilities; to prohibit discriminatory practices, policies, and customs in the exercise of those rights; to prescribe penalties and to provide remedies; and to provide for the promulgation of rules.

Michigan Civil Rights Initiative (Prop 2)

Bans programs in public hiring, public employment, and public education that give preferential treatment to or discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, gender, ethnicity, or national origin.

For more information contact Equal Opportunity Compliance and Title IX at 487-3310 or email eocompliance@mtu.edu.

Higher Education Compliance Alliance

Compliance Matrix

The HECA Compliance Matrix lists key federal laws and regulations governing colleges and universities.

Hate Crimes and Bias-Related Incidents

Members of our community should be free from what have recently been labeled as “hate crimes”. According to the United State Department of Justice, the first federal hate crimes statute was enacted in 1968. The statute made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to willfully interfere with any person because of race, color, religion, or national origin and because the person is participating in a federally protected activity, such as public education, employment, jury service, travel, or the enjoyment of public accommodations, or helping another person to do so. In 2006, new federal protections were added against crimes based on gender, disability, gender identity, or sexual orientation. Within the state of Michigan, a person is guilty of ethnic intimidation if that person maliciously threatens or physically contacts a person with intent to intimidate, harass, or damage the property of that person because of that person’s race, color, religion, gender, or national origin.

The University encourages students, faculty, and staff to report hate crimes. In an emergency, dial 911. If you believe you have experienced a hate crime, you may report it directly to Public Safety and Police Services at 906-487-2216.

Bias is a preconceived negative opinion or attitude about a group of people who possess common physical characteristics or cultural experiences. Often, bias-related incidents are broadly or generally directed to an individual or group of individuals or include an action that, while disturbing, is not criminal or a University policy violation, and also could be protected under the first amendment. If you believe a bias-related incident has occurred, assistance is available on campus to help develop appropriate ways to engage in dialogue to repair perceived harm. The University provides additional information on the First Amendment Rights.