Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences Institute

Renewal Proposal

Statement of Purpose

The Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute (EPSSI) is and will continue to be a focus for interdisciplinary activities in earth, atmospheric, oceanographic and space sciences at Michigan Technological University. EPSSI's purpose is to enable its members to offer programs and pursue research opportunities in those disciplines that go beyond the scope of individual academic departments.


The renewal of an Institute is based in part on its past performance. Since being renewed in 2009, the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute has made significant contributions to the University's mission in research and education.

Oversight and Expansion of the Atmospheric Sciences PhD Program

Members of the prior incarnation of EPSSI, the Remote Sensing Institute, designed, proposed, and oversaw the creation and implementation of the PhD program in Atmospheric Sciences. The Atmospheric Sciences PhD program allows faculty to recruit and retain students who would not be attracted to the more traditional, departmental programs. The first PhD from the program graduated in October 2013; at least two more are expected in the next six months. There are currently 13 students in the program in four departments (eight advisors). Six members of EPSSI are the original faculty in the Atmospheric Sciences program.

Strategic Faculty Hiring Initiatives in Sustainability and Water attracted several strong candidates whose research interests are in atmospheric science. New hires in Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences (GMES), Chemistry, and Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) also joined the Atmospheric Sciences faculty. With 11 faculty members, the Atmospheric Science program is one of the major programs in the country. For comparison, well established Atmospheric Sciences programs at the University of Wyoming and the University of Arizona have 10 and nine faculty members respectively1

Support for Large, Multi-Investigator Proposals

EPSSI has aggressively supported large, multi-investigator proposals, primarily through commitment of cost share to those proposals. Examples of those proposals that have been funded include the NSF MRI Multiphase turbulent reaction chamber, and the NSF Collaborative research project to investigate physical and radiative properties of North Atlantic free tropospheric aerosol.

Support for Research Infrastructure

EPSSI has supported infrastructure enhancement, primarily through cost share for Research Excellence Fund – IE proposals. Examples include an OC/EC analyzer in 2011 and a hi-vol sampler last year. The Institute has committed $10,000 for an REF-IE proposal this year for a single particle soot photometer in addition to $10,000 for an REF-IE proposal (submitted through Chemistry) for acquisition of an ion-chromatography system.

Support for Incoming Faculty

EPSSI is committed to supporting incoming faculty. To that end, the Institute has contributed $22,000 for startup support for a faculty member in GMES. EPSSI has also committed cost share to proposals for new faculty. New and untenured faculty within the Institute are asked to invite potential collaborators and/or proposal reviewers to campus during the fall EPSSI seminar series.

Sustained Research Productivity

Figure 1 is a plot of the cumulative overhead of all proposals associated with EPSSI since the Institute's last renewal. Note that capital equipment does not generate overhead and thus is not reflected in that sum. The plot shows that the members of EPSSI have a sustained and consistent record of procuring funding to support their research activities. We believe that the Institute's support plays a role in that success.

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Figure 1: Cumulative sum of the total overhead generated by proposals associated with the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute since renewal in 2009. The average quarterly overhead generated is $128,284.

EPSSI Seminar Series

The EPSSI Seminar Series is held in the fall semester. See Appendix A for a list of seminar speakers since 2009. It is critical that scientists (not just graduate students) be exposed to the latest results and ideas. For this reason, the formal presentations that these visitors make while on campus are an invaluable contribution to the University's mission.

In many respects, the informal interactions with faculty and students are even more valuable. Moreover, Michigan Tech has a stated goal to become “a national University of choice.” The University's reputation among faculty and scientists at other institutions plays a role in that. We make an effort to ensure that external seminar speakers meet with a range of EPSSI members, and as a result most or all of them leave with a very favorable impression, contributing to improvements in Michigan Tech's national and international reputation.

The seminar series serves as a way for the various sub-disciplines within the Institute to interact and spark new collaborations. We have also used the Seminar series to promote interaction between Michigan Tech's main campus and research staff at the Michigan Tech Research Institute by bringing in MTRI personnel for seminars. The average attendance (estimated) at RSI seminars is 40.

Remote Sensing Minor

The Remote Sensing Minor, Michigan Tech's first interdisciplinary minor, is administered by EPSSI. Five students have received the minor since 2002. Eleven are currently enrolled. 198 students have taken UN4000, Remote Sensing Institute Seminar2, since the fall semester of 2000.

See Appendix B for a further accounting of activities/expenditures since renewal in 2009.

Missions and Proposed Activities

A mission is a specific task with which a person or a group is charged. As stated above, the Purpose of EPSSI is to enable its members to offer programs and pursue research opportunities that would be beyond the scope of individual academic departments. The specific tasks by which the Institute accomplishes that Purpose are as follows:

EPSSI will continue to support and enable large, multi-PI proposals. Many research projects require the expertise and resources of multiple investigators. Funding agencies today are favorably inclined toward such large, multi-investigator, multidisciplinary projects. In the last renewal, we committed to submitting at least three such proposals, a goal which we exceeded. The primary means of support for such proposals is cost share, especially for NSF Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) proposals, for which cost share is required. Support for speakers through the seminar series also plays a role in such support, as the Institute has specifically targeted potential collaborators as seminar speakers.

EPSSI will continue to contribute to the University's research infrastructure enhancement efforts, through cost share for regular and REF-IE proposals. Funding for equipment can be difficult in today's fiscal environment, yet that very equipment is what can make or break a proposal. Preference will be given to equipment which will benefit multiple members of the Institute. Equipment that will foster collaboration within the University (not just the Institute) will also be supported.

EPPSI will continue to support new faculty by contributing to startup funds when appropriate and possible.

EPSSI will continue to support and oversee the PhD program in Atmospheric Sciences. This includes support for new faculty (see first bullet above) as well as support for existing faculty (see following bullets). There are also administrative costs (e.g. secretarial support, processing of graduate applications) that EPSSI covers.

EPSSI will continue to support recruitment and retention of graduate students for its members. The Institute has placed a particular emphasis on recruitment of students in the Atmospheric Sciences program, which is not covered by any department.

EPSSI will continue to support graduate and undergraduate education. In particular, EPSSI has consistently provided funds for students (graduate and undergraduate) to attend national and international meetings. Attendance at such meetings is critical for students, and benefits the University by highlighting the research conducted here. EPSSI will also continue to fund summer undergraduate research projects where appropriate.

EPSSI will continue its long-standing, successful seminar series, which brings 12 to 14 nationally and internationally recognized scientists in disciplines spanning EPSSI's purview to campus every fall.

Justification for Renewal of the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute

The Procedure to Renew an Institute includes the following statement on Justification for the Institute: “Justification. A description of the rationale for establishing the Center/Institute and the anticipated benefits from its creation.” Preceding that, under Mission Statement, is this statement: “This mission provides the basis upon which later evaluations of Center/Institute activities will be made.”

When renewed in 2009, the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute outlined the following goals:

  • Support new faculty by contributing to startup funds.
  • Expand the University's research productivity and infrastructure
  • Continue to support and oversight of the PhD program in Atmospheric Sciences.
  • Continued support for recruitment and retention of graduate students for its members.
  • Continued support for graduate and undergraduate education.
  • Continuation of the Seminar series to foster interdisciplinary research and education.

As outlined in Section 2, the Institute has done those things (see also Appendix B). Section 3 of this document outlines the goals that EPSSI has set for the next five years.

As noted above, the Institute has aggressively pursued opportunities to enhance Michigan Tech's research infrastructure through acquisition of equipment and support of personnel. Notable support for acquisition of equipment and expansion of research infrastructure includes:

  • NRC aerosol neutralizer
  • an organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC) field analyzer
  • a high volume sampler (American Ecotech, deployed at Pico Mt. Observatory)
  • an automated hi volume sampler (DIGITEL hi-vol DHA-80)
  • a high-powered light source for shock wave imaging
  • renovation of Dow 105 to accommodate the NSF MRI funded cloud chamber
  • an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer, (2013 MRI cost share, $15000 committed, proposal not funded)
  • an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer, (2014 MRI cost share, $15000 committed, proposal pending)
  • development of instrumentation to measure the source contribution function of organic gases and aerosols from land surfaces (2014 MRI cost share, $50000 committed (over three years), proposal pending)
  • acquisition of an SP2 soot photometer (2014 REF-IE cost share, $10000 committed, proposal pending)
  • acquisition of an Ion Chromatography System with dual anion and cation capability (2014 REFIE cost share (proposal submitted through chemistry), $10000 committed, proposal pending)

In addition to the equipment and research infrastructure support listed above, EPSSI has fostered Michigan Tech's research productivity through support of personnel. The Institute has funded three summer undergraduate research assistantships3 for $10,300. Graduate student support totals $98,273, and support for postdoctoral scholars is $109,451.

Structure and Management of the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute

Advisory Council

Every department represented within EPSSI is entitled to representation on the EPSSI Advisory Council. Members of EPSSI who are in the same department shall choose amongst themselves who will represent their department on the Advisory Council. If not a department representative, the Director of the Atmospheric Sciences program, which EPSSI oversees, shall be an additional member of the Advisory Council. The term of a member of the Advisory Council will be two years.


The Director of the Institute, who reports to the Vice President for Research, is selected from the members of EPSSI by the Advisory Council. The term of the Director shall be three years. A Director may be re-appointed by the Advisory Council.

Duties of the Director include (but are not limited to) oversight of the day-to-day operations of the Institute, coordination of the seminar series, oversight of the minor in remote sensing, oversight of EPSSI's support of the Atmospheric Sciences PhD program4, and coordination of multi-PI proposals supported by EPSSI. Additionally, the Director is responsible for the yearly report to the Vice President for Research. In the interest of transparency and accountability, the Director shall also prepare and distribute a yearly report to the Advisory Council of the Institute's finances. The report shall include an accounting of expenditures greater than $3000. The Institute will provide funding for secretarial/administrative assistance for the Director.

Centers within EPSSI

Centers may be established within RSI with the approval of the Advisory Council. Of course, Centers must also follow the guidelines for establishment as set forth by the office of the Vice President for Research. The Lake Superior Ecosystems Research Center (LaSER) is the only Center currently authorized under EPSSI.

Space and Facilities

EPSSI, like most other Centers and Institutes at Michigan Tech, has no allocated space5. There are no needs for space at this time.


Funding for the Institute's activities is provided by IRAD funds directed to the Institute from grants affiliated with EPSSI (see Table 1).

Money from this indirect cost recovery will be used to fund the Mission and Proposed Activities detailed in Section 3. The projected costs of activities EPSSI will undertake are shown in Table 1 (see also Appendix B), while routine and administrative costs are shown in Table 2. All costs shown in Table 1 are not expected yearly. In the event that multiple items come up in the same year and that the Institute does not have the resources to fund all of them, the order of priority is reflected in the order of listing in Table 1.

Table 1. Projected Costs for Proposed Activities

Activity Cost
Matching funds for proposals, with an emphasis on major equipment and postdoctoral support $50,000
Faculty startup support (typical)6 $15,000
Seminar series $15,000
Graduate student recruitment $10,000
Funding for undergraduate research (per student) $3,500

Table 2. Routine and Administrative Costs

Activity Cost
Director support $10,000
Atmospheric Sciences Program Director $8,000
Secretarial support $5,000

List of Participating Faculty

Faculty Department
Will Cantrell, Director Physics
Raymond Shaw, Director, Atmospheric Sciences Program Physics
Simon Carn GMES
Paul Doskey CEE/SFRES
John Gierke GMES
Petra Hüntemeyer Physics
Charles Kerfoot Biology
Louisa Kramer GMES
Claudio Mazzoleni Physics
Lynn Mazzoleni Chemistry
Colleen Mouw GMES
Robert Nemiroff Physics
David Nitz Physics
Thomas Oommen GMES
Judith Perlinger CEE
Bill Rose GMES
Aleksey Smirnov GMES
Noel Urban CEE
Greg Waite GMES
Shiliang Wu GMES

Appendix A: Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute Seminar Speakers, Outside Speakers Only

Fall 2009

Speaker Affiliation
Bereket Haileab Carleton College
Manvendra Dubey Los Alamos National Laboratory
Amanda B. Clarke Arizona State University
John Tarduno University of Rochester
Mike Fromm Naval Research Laboratory
Chuck Connor University of South Florida
Colette Heald Colorado State University
Steve Ackerman University of Wisconsin–Madison
Tim Dixon University of Miami (NSF MARGINS Distinguished Lecturer Program, Special Seminar)
Anita Grunder Oregon State University
Weston Thelen University of Washington
Nickolay A. Krotkov NASA GSFC/UMBC
Chris W. Fairall NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory

Fall 2010

Speaker Affiliation
Florian M. Schwandner Earth Observatory of Singapore
David Parrish NOAA ESRL
Will Cantrell, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn Mazzoleni, and Raymond Shaw Michigan Tech
Alistair Smith University of Idaho
Dave Schwab NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
Jed O. Kaplan Environmental Engineering Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Lausanne, Switzerland
John Chadwick University of North Carolina Charlotte
V. Rao Kotamarthi Environmental Science Division , Argonne National Lab
Jonathan M. Lees University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Elizabeth Hays NASA Goddard Space Flight Center
Gabriele Pfister National Center for Atmospheric Research
Robert Kayen US Geological Survey

Fall 2011

Speaker Affiliation
Engielle Paguican Universite Blaise Pascal Clermont Ferrand, France
Joe Meert University of Florida
Bob Shuchman Michigan Tech Research Institute
Tim Garrett University of Utah
Michael R. Hoffman California Institute of Technology
Yan Liu Northern Michigan University
Elissa M. Eastvedt Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Giuseppe Petrucci University of Vermont
Qing Liang NASA GESTAR/Universities Space Research Association (USRA)
Jim Pankow Portland State University
Ronald T. Eguchi ImageCat, Inc.
Richard Aster New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

Fall 2012

Speaker Affiliation
Andres Diaz Universidad de Costa Rica
Patrick Haertel Yale University
Guy Brassuer Climate Service Center—Germany
Luke Van Roekel Northland College
Annmarie G. Carlton Rutgers
Matt Haney USGS-Alaska Volcano Observatory
Barbara Ervens CIRES/NOAA
Rajul Pandya Spark – UCAR Science Education
Andrei Abelev Naval Research Laboratory
Andrea Vander Woude Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research
Matt Alvarado Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

Fall 2013

Speaker Affiliation
Xiquan Dong University of North Dakota
Eurico J. D'Sa Louisiana State University
Daniel Titze University of Minnesota, Duluth
Barbara Finlayson-Pitts University of California, Irvine
Stephen Schwartz Brookhaven National Lab
Alexander Laskin Pacific Northwest National Lab
Marianne V. Moore Wellesley College
Wendy McCausland USGS
Daniel Obrist Desert Research Institute
Mikhail Ovchinnikov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Hongyu Liu NIA

Appendix B: Major EPSSI Expenditures Greater than $3000, Since Renewal in 2009

Undergraduate Research Assistants

Date Item Amount
May 7, 2010 Summer Support, Undergraduate Research Assistant (M. Falkowski) $3,500
May 7, 2010 Summer Support, Undergraduate Research Assistant (C. Mazzoleni) $3,500
March 21, 2013 Summer Support, Undergraduate Research Assistant (J. Becker) $3,300
Subtotal $10,300

Graduate Student Assistanships

Date Item Amount
May 26, 2009 to June 26, 2009 Tuition/Travel for Cornell Course in Aquatic Remote Sensing for F. Yousef (Kerfoot) $3,902
August 31, 2009 Doctoral Fellowship and FB to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,524
August 31, 2009 Tuition to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,523
July 15, 2010 to August 26, 2010 Summer Support and Tuition for Graduate Student Bo Zhang (Perlinger) $2,901
August 23, 2010 Doctoral Fellowship and FB to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,524
August 23, 2010 Tuition to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,523
October 28, 2010 to December 28, 2010 Graduate Support and Tuition for Graduate Student Amalia Anderson (Kostinski) $4,346
January 13, 2011 to April 21, 2011 Graduate Support and Tuition for Graduate Student Foad Yousef (Kerfoot) $5,935
August 25, 2011 Doctoral Fellowship and FB to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,524
August 25, 2011 Tuition to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Rose) $9,523
November 26, 2011 to December 24, 2011 Graduate Student Support. Hourly. M. Hobmeier (C. Kerfoot) $2,205
February 18, 2012 to March 17, 2012 Grad Student Support. Hourly. J. LeDuc (C. Kerfoot) $2,796
August 24, 2012 Doctoral Fellowship and FB to E29478. Grant Proposal Cost Share (B. Baltensberger/B. Rose) $9,524
August 24, 2012 Tuition to E29478 (B. Baltensperger/B. Rose) $9,523
Subtotal $98,273

Post Doctoral Support

Date Item Amount
October 19, 2010 Post Doctoral Salary. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $25,000
October 19, 2010 Post Doctoral Fringes. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $9,650
July 28, 2011 to August 25, 2011 Post Doctoral, Shen Xinhua, (S. Carn) $5,501
August 25, 2011 Post Doctoral Salary. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $25,000
August 25, 2011 Post Doctoral Fringes. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $9,650
August 24, 2012 Post Doctoral Salary. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $25,000
August 24, 2012 Post Doctoral Fringes. E52406. Grant Proposal Cost-Share (R. Shaw) $9,650
Subtotal $109,451

Equipment and Startup Funds

Date Item Amount
January 22, 2009 Startup Funds (S. Carn) $20,000
February 12, 2009 Startup Funds (P. Doskey) $45,000
June 10, 2010 NRC Aerosol Neutralizer $4,175
July 28, 2011 Startup Funds to D90777 (L. Kramer) $11,000
December 2, 2011 Sunset Laboratory, OC/EC Field Analyzer, PICO (L. Mazzoleni) $9,550
March 19, 2012 American Ecotech, PICO (L. Mazzoleni) $5,876
April 3, 2012 Tisch Environmental Lab, Supplies PICO (L. Mazzoleni) $4,248
August 11, 2012 Plant Improvement for Cloud Chamber Project (R. Shaw) $25,000
August 13, 2012 Startup Funds to D90777 (L. Kramer) $11,000
March 23, 2013 American Ecotech, Vol Sampler + Maintenance Workshop (L. Mazzoleni) $3,544
August 29, 2013 to December 30, 2013 Automated High Volume Sampler. REF Proposal Cost Share to E49314 (W. Cantrell) $6,953
Subtotal $146,346


Date Item Amount
October 9, 2009 Support for ATM Courses (Physics) $3,000
Subtotal $3,000
Total $367,370

Appendix C: Proposals Currently (as of March 2014) Associated with the Earth Planetary and Space Sciences Institute

PI Agency Title Total Project Value to Date
Baltensperger/Rose NSF MITEP: A model for improving earth science education nationwide $3,897,418
Cantrell NSF Measurement of Ice Nuclei in the Contact Mode $390,786
Carn NASA A-Train Volcano Observatory (ATVO) $279,091
Carn US DOEd. International Geological Master in Volcanology and Geotechniques $460,000
Carn NSF CDI-type II proposal: Vhub: Collaborative research: Cyberinfrastructure for volcano eruption hazards modeling and simulation $333,343
Carn U of Neb A combined EOS data and GEOS chem modeling study of the direct radiative forcing volcanic sulfate aerosols $129,476
Carn U of Md Continuation of long-term sulfur dioxide EDR with the NPP ozone mapping and profiler suite nadir mapper $65,092
Carn NASA Multi-decadal sulfur dioxide climatology from satellite instruments $661,458
Carn Canegie Inst. W. Improving constraints on volcanic CO2 emissions from the Vanuatu Arc $24,303
Huentemeyer NSF Studying cosmic-ray acceleration and propagation, gas content and interstellar radiation fields in our galaxy with the HAWC observatory $470,250
Kostinski NSF Stochastic aspects of physical and radar meteorology $400,252
Mazzoleni, C Nev Sys Ed MRI: Development of a photoacoustic light absorption and albedospectrometer for the characterization of aerosol radiative transfer in the solar spectrum $76,965
Mazzoleni, C USDOE The radiative role free tropospheric aerosols and marine clouds $317,401
Mazzoleni, C NASA FNR Swarup China Fellowship $60,000
Mazzoleni, C USDOE Atmospheric Transport $39,937
Mazzoleni, L NSF Collaborative research: Chemical, physical and radiative properties of North Atlantic free tropospheric aerosol after long-range transport $546,213
Mouw UNH Development of novel detection and precision algorithms for Microcystis blooms $19,031
Nitz CO St U Northern hemisphere Pierre Auger Observatory in Colorado $195,999
Nitz USDOE Recovery Act: Years 13-15 studies of high energy particle astro physics $765,000
Shaw USDOE Laboratory investigations of contact freezing and the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process $212,261
Shaw NSF MRI: Development of a multiphase turbulent reaction chamber for laboratory studies of atmospheric aerosol and cloud processes $1,989,930
Shaw NSF Laboratory and field studies of cloud-turbulence interactions via digital holography $688,384
Shaw NASA Investigating the effect of solar activity during a grand minimum on clouds $380,011
Smirnov NSF A Paleomagnetic and Geochronological Reinvestigation of the ~1.1 Ga Coldwell Complex: Implications for the Reversal Asymmetry in Keweenawan Rocks $166,220
Smirnov NSF Paleointensity, morphology and stability of the proterozoic geomagnetic field as recorded by mafic dikes ins India $242,309
Smirnov NSF CAREER: Reading magnetic fingerprints from deep time: An insight into the geodynamo and earlly earth system evolution $470,009
Smirnov NSF Early career: acquisition of a high sensitivity superconducting rock magnetometer for paleomagnetic and paleointensity research $357,569
Waite NSF CAREER: eruption dynamics from low frequency volcano seismic signals $521,468
Wu EPA Extreme Event Impacts- Ozone & Particulate Matter Air $370,446
Cantrell REF Volume Air Sampler $40,471
Total Sponsored Funds $14,571,093

Appendix D: Pending Proposals Associated with EPSSI as of March 2014

PI Sponsor Title
Carn U of Maryland Advancing satellite retrievals of SO2 and NO2 next generation algorithm for new and improved OMI products
Carn NASA Continuing and enhancing global SO2 and HCHO data records from Aura/OMI to NPP/OMPS
Carn NASA Extending NASA's long-term satellite data rescords: Advanced SO2 and NO2 measurements from Suomi NPP PMPS
Doskey US DOI Emission factors for secondary organic aerosol precursors from combustion of boreal peat fuels
Kramer NSF CAREER: A comprehensive investigation of ozone sources and their impacts on the rural Great Lakes region
L. Mazzoleni NASA Cloud chemistry of remote marine environments
L. Mazzoleni NASA Organic aerosol in the remote marine free troposphere
Nitz US DOE Studies of particle astrophysics at the cosmic frontier
Perlinger Aahrus U, Denmark Snow-air interactions of persistent organic pollutants (SAIPOP)
Waite NSF Analog modeling of volcanic eruption jets
Wu US EPA Evolution of atmospheric particulate matter and related pollutants in the context of global change

  1. Not counting Emeritus faculty
  2. The name of the course is a hold-over from EPSSI's previous incarnation, the Remote Sensing Institute.
  3. Data from one of those was used as preliminary data in a proposal to DOE.
  4. The Atmospheric Sciences PhD program is non-departmental; as such it is housed in the Graduate School, but administered through RSI. The program is overseen/coordinated by an Atmospheric Sciences Program Director.
  5. As recorded in Aspire.
  6. This could vary substantially, depending on the Institute's reserves and the type of research a given incoming faculty member is proposing to do.