Current Projects

Below, you will find a sample listing of some of the research projects taking place within the Mechanical Engineering department. Use the search box or advanced filtering options to search our research projects by keyword or by investigator. You may also learn more about our research thrusts and the projects related to each area:

Research Thrusts


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Continuation of Ignition Studies

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Mahdi Shahbakhti
Co-PI: Seong-Young Lee
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

This is a program for a continuation of research that Michigan Technological University is conducting in conjunction with the Ford research team. It continues work on ignition with three components:

 (1) metal engine, 

(2) optical engine and 

(3) combustion laboratory. 

 It follows on from the Ford DOE Program on "Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development," 

 The work enables the development of a critical understanding of the ignition process and its interaction with the in-cylinder flow. Results will provide quantitative data on ignition processes including the initial flame kernel development, growth and transition to turbulent flame propagation in-cylinder. The results will also provide quantitative data on flow characteristic via high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) around the electrode in the optical engine. This work will provide needed data for LES flame kernel model development and validation.

Awarded Amount: $115,000

Center for Novel High Voltage/Temperature Materials and Structures

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

This project encompasses three separate projects that are a part of a NSF I/UCRC that is centered at the University of Denver. The three projects are:

• B3: Physical and Chemical Aging of Carbon/Epoxy Composites

• Cl: Development of Advanced Aluminum Alloys for High Conductivity, Elevated Temperature Strength, and Low Galanic Corrosion

• C2: Thermo-Mechanical-Electrical Properties of Carbon Fiber /Nanoparticle/Epoxy Composites

 Project Goal of B3

This project has three objectives: (1) Develop simple and accurate structure­ property relationships relating exposure conditions and nanoparticle content to expected thermo-mechanical performance; (2) Fabricate, characterize, and test polymer and polymer composite materials exposed to long durations of sub-Tg and elevated temperatures, moisture, UV radiation, and oxidative environments; and (3) Use molecular modeling techniques to provide physical insight into observed behavior.

Project Goal of C1

Potential aluminum alloys will be identified and examined for their conductivity through Vienna Ab-initio-Simulation Package (VASP) Density Functional Theory (DFT). Precipitation kinetics will be simulated with Prisma using the MOBA13 database. Using VASP DFT calculations and ThermoCalc, a computational survey will be utilized to select promising alloy compositions and heat treatments. Once this computational survey has been performed, select alloys will be fabricated and assessed experimentally for conductivity and hardness amongst other properties.

 Project Goal of C2

This project has two objectives: (1) Develop molecular models to efficiently determine nanoparticle/epoxy combinations that enhance stress & heat transfer and (2) Fabricate and test graphite fiber/nanoparticle/epoxy hybrid composite panels for thermal conductivity, impact & compression strength, and electrical conductivity and shielding

Awarded Amount: $49,176

Study of Two-Phase Flow Behavior in PEM Fuel Cell Flow Channels

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Kazuya Tajiri
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Confidential

Awarded Amount: $26,000

Advanced Control of Wave Energy Converters

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Ossama Abdelkhalik
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Background

A new multi-year effort has been launched by the Department of Energy to validate the extent to which control strategies can increase the power produced by resonant WEC devices. A large number of theoretical studies have shown promising results in the additional energy that can be captured through control of the power conversion chains of resonant WEC devices.

However, most of the previous work has been completed on highly idealized systems and there is little to no validation work. This program will specifically target controls development for nonlinear, multi-degree of freedom WEC devices. Multiple control strategies will be developed and the efficacy of the strategies will be compared within the "metric matrix."

Objective: The purpose of this contract is to provide the labor to develop and implement custom control strategies for a specified WEC device.

 Scope of Work

Michigan Technological University {MTU} will provide optimization expertise {Dynamic Programing, pseudo-spectral, shape optimization, others) to support MTPA-FF {mid-targeting phase and amplitude-feedforward) designs and analysis specific to the performance model WEC. This will include numerical simulations specific to the metric matrix requirements. In addition, MTU will provide expertise and support for feedforward real-time implementation and investigations.

Deliverables: Software codes, report, and a presentation

 Justification   Statement

Ossama Abdelkhalik is a well-known expert in optimization theory and implementation for spacecraft trajectory orbit designs. He has recently entered the renewable energy field with a specific interest in wave energy conversion power optimization using optimization techniques; such as dynamic programming, pseudo-spectral, novel shape optimization, and others. His specialized optimization skill-set and expertise will be critical in developing feedforward algorithms for design and real-time implementation. Ossama's publication record shows his depth in numerous trajectory optimization research projects in spacecraft navigation, guidance and control.

Awarded Amount: $50,000

Senior Design: Drive Motor in Dowel Agitation

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Background

BISSELL manufactures and markets vacuums, carpet sweepers, deep cleaners, hard surface appliances and a full line of floor cleaning consumables. Founded 137 years ago in Grand Rapids, the family-owned company sells more vacuums and floor cleaners than any other company in the world.

This particular project will focus around the full size upright vacuum category. Recent industry trends have leaned toward smaller, lightweight, and more agile product architectures.

The ability to innovate and remain efficacy while reducing product size is important. To this end,

BISSELL wants to develop an integrated brush dowel and drive motor assembly to reduce product weight, improve quality, and give the end consumer an innovative cleaning solution.

Most brush dowel systems are driven via a belt from an external motor, either dedicated to the brush or driven from a shaft exiting the vacuum motor. Although the concept of placing the motor inside of a dowel has been attempted several times by our competition, neither of these designs were integrated cleanly or in a cost-conscious manner.

Need(s) Addressed

As previously stated, this motor-driven brush dowel assembly will be part of full sized upright vacuum. BISSELL is aiming to provide a lightweight/maneuverable product without sacrificing cleaning performance. This motor in dowel assembly should be integrated as seamlessly as possible, with thoughtful mounting and wire routing. The design should also be tested and proven to meet BISSELL's typical vacuum cleaner life test of 250-300 hours of simulated use. As this life-test fixturing is quite extensive, BISSELL can set-up and run this test on site. The consumer (end-user) should not notice any difference (noise, large speed fluctuations, and excessive vibration) between this motor in dowel design, and a traditionally driven brush dowel. Although this dowel assembly will most likely be serviced by a trained technician, the dowel should still remain accessible for consumer recommended maintenance (i.e. clearing debris, removing hair, etc).

Project Scope

This motor driven brush assembly will be used on a BISSELL "full sized" vacuum. Dowel length will be approximately 12-14" long and dowel diameter, not including extra material thickness for bristle tufting, should not exceed 2.10". (Solutions that are reasonably close dimensionally should still be reviewed with sponsor advisor.) Integrated motor will need defined cooling air paths in order to keep motor below allowable heat rise limits. Brush speed should fall between 3K-4K RPM, with a working motor torque of 150 mNm imparted to the dowel. BISSELL will provide a narrowed motor range that students can select from.

Project Objectives

    • Determine best motor for application for given dowel dimensions based on loading

    • Review and navigate through existing IP (BISSELL to provide)

    • Determine appropriate transmission (style, ratio, materials) to achieve stated brush RPM

    • Investigate noise/sound characteristics of chosen transmission

    • Develop estimated costed bill of materials for top 2-3 design architectures

    • Investigate cooling air flow rates and associated motor temps at various load cases

    • Investigate long term robustness and wear characteristics with accelerated life testing (to be performed at BISSELL)

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Enterprise: Pump in a Hub 2

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Paul van Susante
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Project Scope

Specialized Bicycle Components is enlisting the MTU Velovations Enterprise to improve on the bicycle hub pump design of last year and engineer and prototype version 2 allowing the cyclist to switch between tire pressures while riding.

It has been determined by Specialty Products R&D team that having the ability to adjust tire pressure on the fly could be a huge performance advantage for certain types of terrain. A first shot at designing this concept has been completed but some challenges remain after MTU Velovations undertook the first round of engineering and design. The goal is to design & engineer a second prototype to house a light weight pump mechanism at the wheel center that allows the rider to adjust between two pre-set tire pressures.

Project Goals

1. Prove feasibility of design by refining existing prototype

2. Take lessons learned from initial attempt to design 2nd generation (ride able) prototype

3. Fabricate prototype

4. Test Prototype to project goals on a bicycle

5. Report out learnings and next steps

Go To Market Strategy

This prototype will be used as the proof of concept for this idea. If it works as expected the idea will be pitched to Specialized product management as a potential consumer product. If deemed viable, it will transition into a production project.

Current Challenges

1. Current prototype is too large to try on a bike

2. Current prototype does not seal

3. Clutch engagement

4. Switching on the fly

Questions to Answer

1. Is this design a viable solution?

2. Can it be scaled to fit in current rear hub standards?

3. Can the current design hit the adjusted performance targets settled on during last period?

Deliverables

1. A refined proof of concept in its current form (better sealing)

2. A design concept that theoretically hits performance targets, but can also be ridden

3. A prototype of the refined design

4. A report detailing learnings and next steps from testing

Awarded Amount: $14,870

Thermal Modeling of a Prototype Hybrid Electric Military HMMWV

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $5,118

Testing and Analysis on a Single Cylinder DI SI Engine for Injector Evaluation and Validation with Exhaust Gas Analysis

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $71,390

Providing Hands-On STEM Education at the 2014 Heroes Alliance Young Urban Intellectual Summit

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $71,390

Senior Design: Intake Manifold Design

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $26,021

Senior Design: Chrysler 300 Split Tailgate

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Project Scope/Goal

The split decklid will allow the customer to load cargo into the trunk with only the top part of the decklid open. The lower decklid will be able to rotate down similar to a truck tailgate to provide a surface for a variety of purposes. The lowered tailgate can be used for various functions such as tailgating to sit on, or to use as a surface to hold various items. The idea is to give the customer flexibility and create a product that is capable and reliable to serve many diverse functions. Storage of material that protrudes out of the trunk using the lowered decklid should not be a design objective.

The Michigan Tech team will design this system, prototype the design, incorporate it into a partial vehicle (buck) and validate the functional objectives and requirements are met.

Project Description (Work Plan)

Design, Engineer, Build, and Test a Split Decklid - Design, engineer, build, and test a split decklid adapted from the current Chrysler 300 architecture. This decklid system will provide the customer both the access required of typical decklids without the upswing of the lower waterfall area the added feature of a tailgate style lower swing out panel which will provide a surface for tailgate functions. The entire decklid perimeter, hardware, and adaptation to the body encompass the design space and scope of this project. The final assemblies should meet kinematic, ergonomic, structural, sealing, dimensional, and aesthetic objectives.

Vehicle mass should be a key consideration as well. This design out of steel components will yield a higher mass for this project due to the added hardware and overlap joint between the upper and lower decklid. Part of this project should be to consider alternative materials to produce each of the primary assemblies (aluminum, magnesium, plastic, SMC etc). Therefore, the team must identify methods to create a mass neutral design. It is recognized that due to limitations in fabrication that this may not be possible to produce as a prototype of this complexity. Therefore the mass target for this project will be to identify feasible alternatives that meet the other requirements and only validated in design, not build.

Upper Decklid - With the reduced mass of eliminating the waterfall section of the decklid, the hinge spring will need modification to counterbalance the system to prevent the decklid from opening too fast. The current system is a self-rise system that opens fully upon actuation of the latch. The elimination of the waterfall may also allow for a reduction in full open angle to achieve adequate access and reach for closing the decklid.

This angle needs to be determined and designs modified to accomplish this in proto build.

• Meet 5% female reach for closing dynamics. Adjust current hinge/spring as required.

• Meet opening/closing force requirements

• Maintain function and location of CHMSL.

• Develop sealing design attached to upper decklid that will seal against the lower decklid. Pay close attention to the ends of the seal as it interfaces with the current primary

 

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Senior Design: 4 Passenger Vehicle B-Pillar Design

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
Co-PI: Paul van Susante
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Project Scope

For the upper structure of a vehicle the B-pillar is a primary load path in designing for side impact loads (FMVSS 214 and HHS Side) and roof strength loads (FMVSS 216a and IIHS Roof Strength).

The B-Pillar of four-door vehicles is a critical structural member that needs to resist two primary load cases: roof crush and side impact. These pillars tend to have rather complicated shapes from top to bottom managing the attachments of seat belt retractors, adjustable turning loops, trim, and the like, while providing the flanges to mount the door seal. Due to all these requirements there are various options with regard to the section properties and material choices.

As structural members such as this are highly formed complex shapes, extensive modeling of realistic dynamic loads experienced during these impact events are extremely work intensive and costly. As such, simple yet accurate representations are routinely analyzed during the course of development. A typical B-Pillar, given both its structural and interface requirements, goes through many, many iterations of shape, size, and configuration during the design phase of any vehicle. The project aims to define the relationship between the B-pillar sectional property changes along its length and its ability to resist side impact and roof strength loads. The goal of the project is to develop design principles that lead to improved weight efficiency of the B pillar structure.

The B-pillar design can be seen as having two extremes - 1) Maximum section size at all locations given the vehicle space available and 2) Maximize section continuity along its length even at the expense of section size. The project should explore the weight efficiency as a B-pillar design changes from the first extreme to the second.

This project will be restricted to the design space available in a current production sedan. Basic vehicle hard points that will remain unchanged include - current door openings, hinge locations, wiring locations, seat belt retractor, seat belt turning loop location.

Project Description (Work Plan)

Design a Four-Door vehicle B-Pillar

The design team will focus on designing a B-Pillar for a given four-door passenger car and evaluating its attributes using a simplified analogy. Chrysler will define two load cases: end load/axial to represent roof crush events, and three-point bending to represent side impact. The team will be required to develop various logical options for section shape, size, material gauge, type and analyze through CAE. Once an optimal design is selected the team will need to develop a method to simulate design physically. It is recognized that making complex stampings is out of the capability, cost, and timing for a typical senior design project. As such, one thought would be to condense the design to section properties and represent them physically with a metal rod of various diameters representing inertia values at various stages along the pillar. This would be used to test and correlate to the analysis.

 The team is encouraged to consider other alternatives. Designs will incorporate the following:

• Adequate strength for both axial and three-point load cases

 University Deliverables to Chrysler are:

1) University Project Plan for Chrysler's approval due October 13, 2014.

2) A detailed report containing;

a. The designs for the four-door B-Pillar.

b. The methods and rationale used in creating representative simplified structure as related to actual B-Pillar geometry

c. Documented design of simplified B-Pillar analogy and demonstration of levels of correlation achieved

3) Final prototype of a four-door vehicle B-Pillar incorporating the following;

a. Adequate strength for both axial and three-point load cases

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Senior Design: Pickup Truck Bed Side Access Design

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
Co-PI: Charles Van Karsen
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Project Scope/Goal

The forward section of the truck bed has limited access for many types of cargo. A forward access system can give customers improved usage of this area and allow more efficient load and unload activities. The new design must allow ease of access to cargo stored inside and near the front of the truck bed. It must allow ease of entry into and out of the truck bed. It must meet all functional objectives of a truck bed and door systems such as durability, sag, set, closing efforts. The design must accommodate typical customer accessories such as tonneau covers, bed caps, tie downs and cargo dividers.

Projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and re-worked toward meeting the design requirements.

Project Description (Work Plan)

Design, Engineer, Build, and Test a Pickup Truck Bed Side Access System - Design and prototype an access system for the forward truck bed area from the passenger's side of the vehicle. The project requires an innovative design that is lightweight and low cost to implement. The design space is focused on the current bed area between the rear wheel opening and the cab on the passenger side of the truck. All durability and safety requirements must be met. An investigation of current designs and solutions from competitors should be included.

Once the concept design is developed, physical properties of the components will need to be constructed. Existing componentry can be supplied by the customer for modifications.

The customer can provide the following:

• Current design models

• Load requirements for cargo.

• Durability requirements.

• Truck bed partial property.

• Hinge and latch components if needed.

 

University Deliverables to Chrysler are:

• Design two or more concepts for truck bed side access that:

o Meets load and durability requirements

o Accommodates customer accessories

o Shows innovation and customer appeal

• Select the top candidate and build a model property for physical evaluation

• Provide documentation of performance evaluations

• Provide summary of concept evaluations, competitive designs and customer input.

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Senior Design: Bearing Adjuster Lock Ring Test Rig

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Confidential

Awarded Amount: $25,650

Development of Conformable CNG Tanks for Automotive Development

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gregory Odegard
Co-PI: Jeremy Worm
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Paul Sanders
Co-PI: Paul Sanders
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

A group of researchers at Michigan Tech and REL propose to design, develop, integrate, and test a CNG tank that will have a conformable shape for efficient storage in a light-duty pick-up truck. Michigan Tech is well known for its research in automotive technology, design optimization via simulation, and aluminum material research. REL is the leader in design and manufacturing of aluminum conformable pressure tanks.

This research will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 (1 year) will be a proof-of concept phase in which existing technology will be used to fabricate, integrate, and test a conformable tank for a light-duty truck using existing materials technology and fabrication techniques. In Phase 1, the materials development effort will initiate.

The Phase 1 tank is a simple rectangular box geometry to demonstrate capability of non-cylindrical shapes. The end of Phase 2 (2 years) will result in a conformable tank with an optimized internal structure and improved lightweight material for greater efficiency, capacity and durability. The optimized tank will be integrated and tested on a light-duty pick-up truck that has been converted for CNG.

Awarded Amount: $2,107,965

Proton Exchange Membrane Characterization at Subzero Temperatur

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Kazuya Tajiri
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Confidential

Awarded Amount: $40,000

in Situ Liquid Microscopy of Biological Materials

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Tolou Shokuhfar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $44,378

Emissions Evaluation of a Yamaha Viper with a MPI Turbocharger

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Scott Miers
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $9,576

Raising Awareness to the Need for Growth in Engineering Talent in Michigan and the Training Assets Available at the 2014 CAR Conference

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $12,810

Off-Highway Tire Drop Testing for Titan Tire

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $19,379

Fuze Testing Capability Development

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Confidential

Awarded Amount: $332,172

Global Conversations in Sustainable Transportation

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $6,000

Development of a Robust Igniter for Methane Fueled SI Engines

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

OVERVIEW

Evaluate, and develop the durability and performance of E3 spark plugs when installed in a Natural Gas fueled application. To keep costs low, and lead times short, a Natural Gas fueled generator set is used as the testbed for this work. Work with E3 to develop additional testing programs on other specific engines, such as large truck engines and / or evaluate the combustion performance of the spark plug in Natural Gas applications.

EXPERIMENTATION PLAN

The testbed for this durability testing is a 30 kW Natural Gas fueled generator set. The genset is powered by a 4-cylinder GM engine. The engine is turbocharged, and therefore is capable of achieving a high specific load. The 4-cylinder engine allows for one or two baseline spark plugs and two or three spark plugs under test to be evaluated. As the objective of the testing is durability, the test bed is lightly instrumented providing only the most critical parameters needed for spark plug durability evaluation and / or engine control. Engine load is varied in two or three steps, with approximately equal time spent in each step over the course of the testing. One of the steps is 100% load. The other loads include a mid-load and / or a low-load. The speed is the generator required speed of 1800 RPM. After approximately every 50 hours of operation all spark plugs are removed and their gap measured, and their visual condition noted. After approximately every 100 hours of operation the spark plugs  also have photographs recorded, the mass of the spark plug recorded, and the electrical resistance of the core, and the resistance to the shell recorded. Additionally every 100 hours intermediate test results including data recorded on the spark plug itself (gap, resistance, mass, etc.) as well as engine data (EGT, load profile, etc.} sent to E3. After approximately every 350 hours of operation the engine undergoes maintenance including oil and filter changes, and new ignition components (distributor cap, rotor, and spark plug wires) to ensure all spark plugs are receiving a high quality "signal" throughout the testing. At this time the compression and leakdown rate of the engine is also measured to ensure the engine remains mechanically sound and / or all cylinders are approximately equal.

Awarded Amount: $28,929

Senior Design: AFRL Design Challenge Project Sequence

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $29,739

Testing on Single Cylinder DI SI Engine for Injector Evaluation and Validation

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $8,350

CPS: Breakthrough: Toward Revolutionary Algorithms for Cyber-Physical Systems Architecture Optimization

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Ossama Abdelkhalik
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $8,350

New Sulfur-Carbon Cathode Material with Improved Electrochemical Performance

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $8,350

John Deere Denso GS CB Injector Spray Characterization

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Jaclyn Johnson
Co-PI: Seong-Young Lee
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Objective:

Investigate and characterize five injectors including the effect of nozzle hole details on spray characteristics under a baseline set of conditions with options for charge gas variants and combustion characterization.

Overview:

Tests will be conducted in Michigan Tech's optically accessible combustion vessel (CV) research facility. Existing hardware in the facility will be used; including a high pressure diesel fuel system capable of pressures to 400 MPa, high speed imaging for liquid, vapor and combustion, and custom solenoid/piezo drivers which are tunable to the desired wave-form via John Deere.

A Fixture will be designed and fabricated to interface the injector into the combustion vessel. This injector fixture will include a heating-cooling system to control the injector temperature independent of the charge gas conditions and chamber wall temperature.

Awarded Amount: $73,855

HEV and EV Hands-On Education for the 2014 Calendar Year

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $34,791

Trajectory Analysis for NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Ossama Abdelkhalik
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $10,256

Experiencing Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies at the Center for Advanced Automotive Technology 2014 Conference

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

OVERVIEW

Supporting the 2014 Macomb Community College CAAT Conference with the Michigan Tech Mobile Lab. Additionally the Mobile Lab will provide 1-day of open house style engagement for the Students, Faculty, and Staff of Macomb Community College the day before the CAAT conference.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the proposed Michigan Tech involvement in this project are:

1. Provide an open house of the Mobile Lab,

2. Provide a location for a short presentation on HEV Technology prior the CAAT Rid & Drive.

WORK PLAN

The Mobile Lab will provide an open house, during which the Lab will be open to any persons including Macomb Community College Students, Faculty, Staff, and the general public. During this time there will be two Mobile Lab Staff on hand to talk to the guests about various vehicle technologies, experimental technologies, educational programs or opportunities at Michigan Tech, etc. Various demonstrations can also be provided during this period of time on a case by case basis depending on the individuals attending the open house.

During the CAAT Conference the Mobile Lab will provide an open-house experience beginning at 8AM and will continue until the Ride and Drive begins. At the beginning of the Ride and Drive, participants of the ride and drive will be given a short presentation on HEV Technology from within the Mobile Lab prior to driving the vehicles obtained by Macomb Community College. The presentation can be repeated as many times as necessary as the Ride and Drive event continues.

Additionally, Mobile Lab Staff can assist in delivery of the short presentation to give the Macomb Community College Faculty a break throughout the evening. Two Mobile Lab Staff will be on-hand throughout the CAAT Conference event.

Awarded Amount: $8,500

Analysis of Mobile Haulage Equipment Operating Dynamics

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Nina Mahmoudian
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $8,500

Characterization of Torque Converter Cavitation Level during Speed Ratio Operation - Year 3

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jason Blough
Co-PI: Carl Anderson
Co-PI: Mark Johnson, PE
College/School: School of Technology
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Introduction/ Abstract

Torque converter torus designs have evolved from axially long and round shapes to axially thin and elliptical shapes as automatic transmission content has increased in numbers of gears and in damping capability of the torque converter clutch. Future designs will include torque converters with even thinner tori with the torque converter to be used strictly as a vehicle launch device and the converter clutch applied in low gear at low vehicle speed.  These changes result in improved vehicle fuel economy, however, thinner torus torque converters are at increased risk for high levels of cavitation. The fluid in a small torus torque converter versus large at the same level of torque has greater pressure gradients across the blades of the converter pump, turbine, and stator. Greater pressure gradients result in lower pressures on the low pressure side of converter element blades which can lead to cavitation. Smaller torus converters also contain less transmission fluid which can lead to localized regions of higher temperature, further contributing to increased risks for high levels of cavitation. Understanding torque converter cavitation and noise characteristics, and the Influences of design parameters and operating conditions on cavitation level is vital to enabling new generations of transmission designs.

This research seeks to build upon knowledge gained from previous torque converter cavitation and noise studies executed at MTU. Previous research has established that moderate levels of cavitation are present in many torque converters under normal operating conditions. This research intends to quantify the level of cavitation present under normal and overload operating conditions and to develop a method to compare designs relative to design parameters and loading.

 Introduction

Starting in 1997, extensive research was conducted into techniques for detecting the presence of cavitation in the flow field of an operating torque converter. These studies have produced novel methodologies for sensing the onset of cavitation and quantifying its intensity at various operating conditions using microwave telemetry and specially instrumented torque converters. In 2000, a separate project was undertaken to develop a technique to acquire and evaluate noise generated by a torque converter during operation using acoustic measurements. Large quantities of data were acquired in both vehicles and in the dynamometer lab, advanced software was used to disassemble the noise spectrum into its critical components. Very successful measurement and analysis methodologies were developed, but no attempt was made to utilize these tools on converters of widely different sizes and designs. In 2004, a project was undertaken in which converters of different sizes and designs were operated over a range of charge pressures and torques at the stall operating condition. Noise data was acquired during the tests, processed by the recently developed numerical techniques, and non-dimensionalized or otherwise correlated against the converter's design and load parameters. The acoustical method of cavitation sensing was employed to similarly define the influence of converter design on cavitation potential. This data was used to validate the dimensional analysis approach to cavitation prediction suggested by the earlier work. To provide the precision and repeatability necessary for testing performed, both the dynamometers and hydraulic system of the test facility were updated to full computer control. The body of work has nicely correlated the cavitation characteristics of torque converters at stall conditions. In 2007, a project was initiated to characterize torque converter cavitation through a range of speed ratio operation and normal input torque and power levels. Test data was analyzed to develop dimensionless models to predict the speed ratio for cavitation desinense based on torque converter design parameters and operating conditions.

The research established that moderate levels of cavitation are present with no adverse effects in many production torque converters functioning under normal operating conditions. There are no complaints of objectionable noise from cavitation and no evidence of material wear or damage due to the implosion of cavitation bubbles. As torque converter torus designs continue to get smaller, this may no longer be the case. This study proposes to develop a method to measure and quantify the level of cavitation in a torque converter, determine criteria for acceptable levels of cavitation, test a matrix of torque converter designs for cavitation, and perform dimensional analysis to create a model capable of predicting cavitation level based on design parameters and operating conditions

Awarded Amount: $84,811

Hands-On Experiential Learning Through Development of an Electric Drive Vehicle

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $84,811

Hands-On Education in Engines & Experimental Studies

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Overview

Hands-on education with the Michigan Tech Mobile Lab will be utilized to deliver the training to John Deer employees during training week in September 2014.

Audience

This training is intended for Engineers, Managers, and Technicians who are either new to the area of Instrumentation & Experimental Methods and the Fundamentals of Diesel Engines, or wish to broaden their knowledge to assist in vehicle integration or communication with colleagues across various subsystems. An engineering degree is recommended, but not required for this training. The proposed sessions are designed for a maximum of 20 participants. There is no minimum number of participants.

Outline

The proposed hands-on training covers two topics 1) Instrumentation & Experimental Methods and 2) Fundamentals of Diesel Engines and takes place over 5 days. The material is a mix of traditional direct learning and hands-on experimentation with data analysis and discussion. The direct learning portion is taught from the Mobile Lab's classroom, which seats up to 20 participants. The hands-on experimentation will be conducted utilizing a multitude of the Mobile Lab's equipment which may include production hybrid vehicles, a configurable hybrid vehicle, vehicle chassis dynamometer, and hybrid powertrain test cells. Each topic is 2.5 days of training.

Awarded Amount: $48,964

Understanding the Cavity Mode of Tires

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jason Blough
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Background:

The purpose of this research is to be able to predict the natural frequencies associated with the cavity modes of tires mounted oil wheels. Ford has experienced difficulties in the past when these natural frequencies have aligned themselves with the natural frequencies of other vehicle components and hence caused an objectionable noise in the vehicle. The goal of this project is to provide the tools to Ford to allow them to make decisions in advance of mounting tire/wheel combinations on vehicles by estimating what these tire cavity natural frequencies will be. It is anticipated that to fully understand the frequencies of the tire cavity modes will require a combination of modeling and experimental testing.

Approach:

To meet these objectives start with a finite element model of the cavity of a tire mounted on a wheel. The initial model includes effectively a rigid tire and wheel. This model is not a coupled vibro-acoustic model but instead just an estimate the natural frequencies of the tire cavity itself with zero velocity boundary conditions. This model will be modified to simulate the change in the tire cavity shape when the wheel is loaded in a static configuration. The results of the loaded and unloaded models are compared to help to understand the effects of changing the tire cavity's shape. If the results of this model show promise, simpler modeling methods will be explored.

The next step in the modeling process includes a flexible tire and wheel and be a fully coupled vibro-acoustic model. In this model, the wheel will have actual material properties assigned while the tire will be modeled as an isotropic material with estimated material properties that will be iterated to achieve natural frequencies of the coupled system similar to those measured in the laboratory of a stationary tire. This model will then be modified to a statically loaded condition and the model re-run to observe the effects of loading the tire on the natural frequencies.

Models will be validated experimentally by testing a tire/wheel assembly in the laboratory at MTU. Testing will be done in the both the unloaded and the statically loaded case by exciting both the wheel and the tire patch in separate tests. Natural frequencies will be estimated from all tests and used to validate the models. Models and testing will be performed on several different tire/wheel combinations to assess the ability to estimate the natural frequencies of different configurations. Based on the results of the modeling and testing the final deliverable from this project will be the simplest approach that can be determined for estimating the natural frequencies of a tire cavity based on a minimum set of information or data.

Awarded Amount: $64,000

Support of RMCP Phase II SBIR

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jason Blough
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $31,000

Engine Preparation and Instrumentation for Development and Test of the Nostrum Cycle on a Cummins ISB Diesel Engine

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $37,357

GOALI: Collaborative Research: Easily Verifiable Controller Design

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Mahdi Shahbakhti
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $37,357

Senior Design: Aquatic Fitness Tool

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and prototype an aquatic fitness tool to be used for movement and strength training.

Background

BeachFit produces innovative fitness tools used in natural settings. The first launch product uses beach sand for movement and weight training. The versatile nature of the product line is unique because various exercises can be done using one tool.

Need(s) Addressed

The initial launch of the BeachFit device has been very well received, and has identified a need for an aquatic based routine using a similar tool. The envisioned device would replicate the total body workout offered by the BeachFit apparatus in a pool/pond/lake/ocean front environment. It would offer the average consumer (regardless of fitness level) the ability to effortlessly use this tool to move, stretch, and strength train. Stroking and pushing the water mass is one part of the workout. The secondary aspect will be filling the device with water, using that mass for strength training.

Project Scope

This project team will focus on adapting the known ladder architecture to an aquatic version of the workout implement. Certain known, proven features (such as handle placement, size, etc.) will be adapted to the newly designed aquatic tool. There are new features and functionality that the exercise environment will be driving (variable water capture, material choices, surface texture of handles, flotation, user interface design, etc.). Design for manufacture is a key consideration in the design of this new device, as well as maximizing 'green' material choices. The final design must be durable, rugged, and pleasing to the eye. There is currently an 85% female market in exercise equipment of this type, and the new design is intended for this market.

Customer can provide the following:

• Constant contact and feedback throughout the design project

• Marketing standards and design targets for product

• Various building material options

• Samples of launch product

• Preliminary feasibility prototypes of water capture device

• Color choice for molded plastic

Project Objectives

• Design and prototype an aquatic version of the BeachFit exercise device incorporating:

- Verified strength/stiffness of design through FEA

- New hinge option for 180° versatility on ends

- Main design drivers:

- Low cost with U.S.-based manufacturing

- Maximize 'green' content- i.e. post-consumer content in molded components

- Device must float

- Eye-catching aesthetics

Final device must be rugged and durable and easy to use

•Strength/stiffness/mass should mimic existing device as well as possible

• Water vessel on each side must:

- Be molded from transparent/translucent material

- Be delineated with water fill levels (Units TBD)

- Be able to contain/hold up to 8 pounds (1 gallon) of water

- Incorporate clamshell aesthetic (see provided feasibility prototypes)

• Full documentation package of final design

- FEA models

- CAD drawings of all components, assemblies, and assembly fixtures needed

- Full bill of material

- Proposed materials and manufacturing method for each component

- Documentation of method of fabrication for all prototype pieces

Awarded Amount: $17,844

Senior Design: Rear Differential Case Testing

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Objective:

Evaluate durability of various combinations of surface treatment and material composition on rear differential housings.

Project Scope

American Axle Manufacturing sponsored a series of Capstone Design projects ultimately concluding with the completion of an apparatus and method for evaluation of wear resistance on the internal surfaces of helical gear differentials. This project will make use of that previously built test rig to evaluate various types of surface treatments and materials regarding their resistance to wear. Sample preparation will entail cutting whole rear differentials (supplied by AAM) into thirds, each third comprising a test sample. The sample will then have appropriate micro-milled pockets created and measured for depth. Each test sample (line items shown below) will be setup and run for 1 hour. The sample will then be removed, and each micro-milled pocket measured for depth. The before vs. after pocket depths will comprise an indication of relative wear resistance of each surface treatment/material combination.

Awarded Amount: $8,541

MRI: Acquisition of a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope for In Situ Microscopy Research and Education

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
Co-PI: Stephen Hackney
Co-PI: Claudio Mazzoleni
Co-PI: Tolou Shokuhfar
Co-PI: Yoke Yap
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $8,541

Collaborative Teaching

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Scope

Michigan Tech Staff Member, support Northcentral Technical College (NTC} faculty in the preparation and delivery of course materials at NTC during the Fall 2013 semester. To support the courses the Michigan Tech Staff Member will spend three weeks at NTC working with NTC faculty in the classroom and lab.

The specific courses and utilization within those courses will be left to the discretion of NTC within the scope of the staff experience. Examples of collaboration could Include guest lectures, assisting NTC Instructors In the lab, and development of new educational apparatus, class projects, and learning modules.

Awarded Amount: $7,719

NRI: Co-Robots to Engage Next Generation of Students in STEM Learning

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Nina Mahmoudian
Co-PI: Michele Miller
Co-PI: Mohammad Rastgaar Aagaah
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $7,719

Ford Diesel Spray Studies: Rate of Injection Measurement Phase 2

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jaclyn Johnson
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Seong-Young Lee
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Ford Diesel Spray Studies: Rate of Injection Measurement Phase 2

Overview:

To supplement the acquired rate of injection (ROI) data from the initial momentum flux measurements, additional tests will be undertaken to characterize the initial transient rate of injection spray development. This will include investigating the effect of impingement distance on the transient rate of injection, accomplished through the use of differing anvil lengths. Tests will be conducting using the standard Baseline B multi-hole Injector. An option to look at the hole to hole variations in transient ROI development and to correlate this to the Bosch ROI is included along with other testing and analysis options.

 

Objectives

Utilizing the impingement momentum flux method for ROI, determine the following:

Characterize the influence of impingement distance on the measured transient rate of injection by measuring at 4 distances (nozzle exit to anvil).

Options are included for the following:

  • Characterize the plume to plume differences at early injection and compare to the Bosch ROI by appropriately phasing and summing the individual nozzle impingement ROI measurements.
  • Model the impact of ROI distance using the momentum flux model of Naber and Siebers (1) extended to transient spray momentum flux by Musculus and Kattke (2)
  • Image the impingement with high speed micro-photography.  Imaging will be acquired of the first impingement only, through the Plexiglass viewing port on the ROI fixture.

 

This work will utilize the developed ROI fixture from Phase 1 testing and the existing DAQ system, but will require hardware modifications in the form of different anvils. Included would be characterization at different injection pressures and impingement distances.

Awarded Amount: $10,379

Senior Design: Gear Housing Joint Design

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Improve performance of interfaces involving dissimilar metals and bolted joints.

Background

Linamar is a global supplier of drivetrain components and systems, including transmissions, transfer case assemblies, differential assemblies, and power takeoff units. Market driven demands for higher performance and lower mass are leading designs of these systems and components toward use of light alloys wherever possible. Many components, however, require the use of cast iron because of strength demands, thus leading to dissimilar metal interfaces within these systems. Bolt load retention is of importance when considering the required clamp load to seal housings and the durability of the system. Bolt load retention is a function of many factors, but of particular interest is the effect of temperature, dissimilar materials, and geometric spacing on the bolt fatigue life.

Need(s) Addressed

Designs historically based on cast iron or similar materials are now faced with new challenges of incorporating these light alloys. Joints, interfaces, and load paths require scrutiny to assure proper system level performance and acceptable service life. Due to the increased use of aluminum die cast covers in particular, as well as the demands for reduced cost and weight, it is desired to acquire a deeper understanding of the behavior of these components within various driveline systems. For example, the effect of bolt spacing in relation to certain design variables and of the introduction of certain materials on the fatigue life of a bolted joint over various temperatures are of interest. Greater understanding of these types of joints is desired. If the behavior of an aluminum-to-cast iron interface could be quantified and compared to that of a cast iron-to-cast iron inte1face, more effective product designs would be possible.

Project Scope

This design team will focus on exploring and introducing design improvements for systems and structures involving dissimilar metallic joints. This work should involve research into phenomena that may influence performance of such joints and inh•oducing designs aimed at improving this performance. There are many aspects to proper performance of this type of structure, including thermal cycling, fastener type and spacing, alloy types, etc. The design team is encouraged to explore these and other parameters of interest.

This work may involve designing and building a test system that will enable quantification of various design approaches. Essentially, this device should be designed to accept gear housings of various configurations (within limits- specified by customer) and run through a series of tests intended to reveal behavior of various gear housing configurations. These tests could include thermal cyclic loading, direct and reactionary loads, and bolt stress-strain behavior relative tension/load and fatigue life. Axial and transverse (shear) cyclic loading should both be considered.

Linamar can provide the following in support of the design team's work:

• Typical housings, castings, and related components representing various types of dissimilar joints

• Associated hardware (bolts, mating parts, etc.)

• Background information bringing the team up to speed on specific areas of concern specifications for necessary thermal profiles and load cases

Project Objectives

• Improve the performance of bolted joints involving dissimilar metals:

- Thermal cyclic loading

- Mechanical cyclic loading

- Quantify bolt load retention vs. fatigue life

- Shear load capacity

Awarded Amount: $25,279

Nostrum Continued Engine Research

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Bo Chen
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $25,571

Engine Development and Instrumentation for the Nostrum Cycle on Cummins ISB Diesel Engine

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $202,694

Ignition Studies

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Jaclyn Johnson
Co-PI: Seong-Young Lee
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

This continues work from the Ford DOE Program1 on "Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development," for which Michigan Tech was subcontracted to conduct. The following is the proposed SOW for continuation of the ignition research areas with additional studies in an optical engine.

The proposed work is broken into the three components, (1) combustion lab, (2) metal engine, and (3) optical engine studies. The advantage of this workflow is that details on the Ignition system can be synergistically studied at multiple stages with specific instrumentation to determine the underlining principles behind the drivers for ignition system requirements and performance under highly stressed operation resulting from lean/dilute operation with in-cylinder flow.

1. Combustion Laboratory

Studies in the Combustion lab in the combustion vessel build on work conducted during the DOE program. In this work isolated ignition events can be studied in detail under controlled thermodynamic and flow conditions. The combustion lab is instrumented with a Ford provided Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) capable of driving four coils with variable dwell, phasing, and quenching to a single spark-plug. The combustion vessel is highly configurable with instrument ports and window ports. The combustion vessel can be setup and arranged to cover a wide array of optical studies under conditions representative of in-cylinder conditions. The thermodynamic conditions are generated by controlling the fuel mixture composition and stoichiometry through mixing individual gases (fuel, 0 21 N21 C021 etc.), pressure, and temperature.

The flow conditions are set by using a shrouded fan system.  By changing the fan configuration, fans' speed and shroud, the flow past the spark plug electrode can be controlled. As a result the ignition (break-down, arc and glow discharge) and initial flame kernel development can be studied with high speed imaging and other diagnostics.  The proposed work is to conduct 200 tests in which the conditions will be determined by direction of Ford technical staff in consultation with Michigan Tech. These tests are broken up into multiple stages.

2. Metal Engine

The metal engine work continues on the V6 3.SL IVCT engine that is setup for testing at Michigan Tech in a dynamometer engine test cell. It has the Ford PCM with ability to integrate prototype code via ATI no-hooks, a prototype EGR system controlled by a prototyping ECU, the Ford Variable Output Ignition System (VOIS) for dual coil per cylinder control, and instrumentation including cylinder pressure transducers coupled with a combustion analysis tool. Additionally a high speed 10M samples per second, long record length, National Instrument system has been incorporated for measurement of ignition system secondary characterization. This coupled with the cylinder pressure combustion analysis tool provides characterization of ignition system performance with combustion metrics including combustion phasing, combustion durations (0-10, 10-90% mass faction bum, combustion variability through coefficient of variance (COV) and lowest net value (LNV) of IMEP and percent misfires. In-cylinder flow motion can be set to low or high by inserting tumble planks in the intake ports.

The Ford VIOS system drives two coils per cylinder and when used with variable duration (short, medium, long, and extra-long) coils with controlled dwells can provide a wide range of ignition energy profiles including continuous and discontinuous discharges with variable delays and individual durations. The system drives all 6 cylinders with secondary measurements on cylinder 1. Additionally quenching has been added to truncate the tail of the glow discharge for additional energy-phasing-duration control for cylinder 1. Supplemental measurements of secondary voltage and current are measured in the DAQ systems.

Standard tests include:

  • EGR and lean sweeps at constant speed I load to identify dilution limits as a function of coil energy and discharge duration
  • Dwell sweeps with varying coils
  • Coil 8 delay sweeps where the interval between the first coil (A) and second call discharges is changed
  • Restrike and quenching with variable energy and delay

3. Optical Engine

Michigan Tech has been working with Mahle Powertrain (MPT) on the development and integration of an optical engine for research at Michigan Tech for research purposes. To develop the setup and controls for the engine, MTU has setup a 2013 2.0L EcoBoost metal engine. Finalization of the development on the metal engine was completed in December of 2013.  The engine is setup with standard DI side mount injection and single coil ignition. The engine controls are done via a rapid prototyping controller. As part of this work MTU will develop controls for a dual coil ignition system for the engine. The system will perform individual control for the dwell and phasing of the two coils with a diode pack similar to the Ford VIOS to drive to a single spark plug. Ford will provide necessary coils and plugs for study. Optionally MTU will setup for N2/C02 gas dilution as a surrogate for external EGR.

The proposed work is to conduct 4 weeks of testing once the engine setup is complete starting in April. The tests will be broken up into 4 phases each 1 week in duration. The test conditions will be determined by direction of Ford technical staff in consultation with Michigan Tech.

Awarded Amount: $95,752

SGAS Drive Train Model Calibration

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gordon Parker
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Introduction

Calibration is an important step in creating a physical model that can be used for predictive control system design. IMECO has a MATLAB/Simulink model of their Steering Gear Actuation System (SGAS). It contains parameters that can be classified as known (e.g. control system gains), known with uncertainty (e.g. mass properties) and unknown (e.g. damping coefficients). IMECO has also obtained experimental data that can be used to run the model and compare model outputs to sensor measurements. An optimization-based method for identifying the model parameters is needed to help automate the calibration process.

Statement of Work

Using the model and experimental data supplied by IMECO, calibrate the model using advanced numerical optimization strategies. Separate calibration parameters for several data sets will be developed in addition to a single calibration across multiple data sets. While the calibration is of primary importance, development of a methodology for automating the process will also be developed.

Awarded Amount: $47,598

Combustion Control for SI Engines

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Bo Chen
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Overview

This is continues work from the Ford Dept. of Energy Program on "Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development."

Work will continue on the 3.SL IVCT engine that is instrumented and controlled at Michigan Tech. It has the Ford PCM with ability to integrate prototype code via ATI no-hooks, a prototype EGR system controlled by a prototyping ECU, a prototyping Ford Tribox controller for closed loop pressure sensing and combustion control, and instrumentation including cylinder pressure transducers.

At Ford's discretion a different engine will be provided by Ford to instrument and replace the 3.SL. MTU will instrument and install the engine according to the tasks below.

 Objectives:

Combustion Sensing and Control via feedback from in-cylinder pressure sensors is broken down into the following subtasks.

a. Evaluation of production intent sensors on engine via comparison of signal to instrument grade sensors.

b. Optimization of combustion metrics for combustion phasing and stability.

c. Development of methods of improved torque estimation from cylinder pressure measures (e.g, net IMEP).

d. Develop combustion control techniques for dynamic engine conditions.

e. Investigate cylinder Air/Fuel balancing and cylinder air charge estimation.

f. Develop adaptive correction techniques for combustion control and integrate and test.

  1. Provide analytical analysis of dynamic vehicle traces provided by Ford.
Awarded Amount: $113,827

Advanced Control and Energy Storage Architectures for Microgrids

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Wayne Weaver
Co-PI: Ossama Abdelkhalik
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $113,827

High Impact STEM Outreach Utilizing the Michigan Tech Mobile Laboratory at the 2014 Michigan Civil Air Patrol Summer Cadet Encampment

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Bo Chen
Co-PI: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Abstract

Michigan Tech is home to a versatile mobile laboratory that travels the North American continent serving as a venue for a wide range of educational opportunities. Hands-on discovery based learning activities are an effective means of enabling students to grasp and retain complex topics in engineering and science. Students excel when they can relate an individual concept to the overall larger context of product development and societal advancement.

The Mobile Lab is utilized to deliver hands-on, high-impact STEM based explorations at the 2014 Michigan Civil Air Patrol Summer Cadet Encampment.

Explorations designed to demonstrate how aeronautics and engineering subsystems for space work, and illustrate the importance of STEM education and career fields in continuing to improve and move along the pathway towards sustainable air and space transportation. This project engages students and provides opportunities to explore STEM activities and concepts that are fundamental to the aeronautic and space technologies.

Awarded Amount: $10,001

Electrospray from Magneto-Electrostatic Instabilities

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Lyon King
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $10,001

Fundamental Understanding on the Role of Structural Defects on Lithiation of Nanoscale Transition Metal Oxides

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $10,001

Enterprise: Cold Plate Design/Optimization

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
Co-PI: John Lukowski
Co-PI: Richard Berkey
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Background & Overview

LG Chem Power Inc. (http://lgcpi.com/) is a leader in lithium ion polymer battery technology for the North American electric vehicle (HEV, PHEV, EV) markets. LGCPI is located in Troy, MI and is a subsidiary of LG Chem Ltd., headquartered in Korea. LGCPI's battery packs represent advanced systems comprised of LG Chem's cells arranged in modules which are then packaged into a pack that includes sophisticated battery and thermal management systems. Thermal management plays an important role in battery performance and life.

Problem/Opportunity Statement

A cold plate is one of the key components in an indirect cooled battery pack. Cooling fins pull heat out of the cells through conduction and transfer this heat to the cold plate, which acts as a heat sink. Indirect cooling involves air or liquid flowing through this cold plate, external to the battery cells. One advantage of indirect cooling is that no fluid enters the cells, minimizing risks of leakage. However, it also presents a design challenge where a balance must be made between plate thickness, structural rigidity, and cooling performance. The ideal plate is one that:

• maintains full contact with the cooling fin when subjected to evacuation and filling pressures

• has a minimal restriction to coolant flow, and

• uses the minimum amount of material to achieve cooling and structural performance

Project Significance

Optimization of the cold plate design enables LG Chem Power Inc. to offer a better performing, more cost effective, and more efficient battery solution for its customers. The project offers the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Enterprise (HEV) students an opportunity to work on a real-world design opportunity associated with EV battery packs, where performance tradeoffs must be balanced through design optimization.

Anticipated Outcomes of the Student Team

The anticipated outcomes of the HEV Enterprise team are as follows:

1. Definition and Background Research: review available literature on indirect cooled battery packs including design criteria for LGCPI's current pack design. Review objectives and constraints with LGCPI Engineering.

2. Cold Plate Concept Designs: develop multiple cold plate designs. Possible design variables include but are not limited to thickness, rib/cooling fin interface, material/alloy, etc.).

3. Structural and Thermal Analyses: evaluate the performance of the different plate designs using FEA and thermal modeling (CFD).

4. Evaluation and Selection: identify the most promising design based on above analyses coupled with considerations for cost and manufacturability.

5. Prototype: fabricate a functional prototype cold plate based on the design in #4.

6. Testing: work with LGCPI to develop a suitable test plan (e.g. in the HEV mule vehicle, pack testing at LGCPI, etc.

Awarded Amount: $19,516

Enhancement of Corn-based Fuel for Recreational Engines and Vehicles

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Scott Miers
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $19,516

Fundamental Investigations for Very High Heat-Flux Innovative Operations of Milli-Meter Scale Flow Boilers

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Amitabh Narain
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $19,516

Characterization Test-Bed for Nanostructured Propellants

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Lyon King
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $19,516

Development and Research of Nostrum Energy's Novel Fluid Injector Technology through Experimentation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Seong-Young Lee
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $121,469

Nostrum Energy Statement of Work for Continued Engine Research

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Bo Chen
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $56,800

Senior Design: Automated Sealant System

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Bo Chen
Co-PI: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and prototype an automated sealant application system.

Background

HGS Aerospace specializes in engineering • and assembly solutions for aerospace manufacturing. They focus on advanced fabricating and assembly techniques, robotics~ flexible tools, and automated machinery Mechanical Engineering Senior Capstone Design Program applied to aircraft manufacture. One of the many critical and time intensive operations in aircraft manufacture involves sealing seams and fasteners at the many inter-component 3'oints in the aircraft’s fuselage and wing structures. Sealing these joints is required for a number of reasons, including maintaining the integrity of pressurized bulkheads and covering of exposed sharp edges. Exposed sharp edges can produce sparking in certain atmospheric conditions. If the aircraft's structure has an exposed sharp edge at any joint in a critical area, it must be sealed and encapsulated. The beads used in sealing these joints and covering these sharp edges must be of a certain form. The cross section of these beads is very specific and highly inspected, and is a very time-intensive part of an aircraft’s assembly. For example, the current Boeing C17 wing spar assemblies require 642 hours to seal and encapsulate fasteners.

Moreover, this manual process requires a long period of training on the part of technicians to acquire the proficiency in its completion. Many manufacturers experience high turnover rates among the trained corps applying this sealant. Acquiring the proper skills takes upwards of 6 months, and these skilled technicians often stay on this duty for the same period of time.

Need(s) Addressed

Given the repetitive nature of this process, it is envisioned that an automated operation could take its place. It is estimated that a properly engineered system could transform the present 642 - hour manual process into a 60-hour automated process. This automated process would also save the hours of training and re-training of qualified personnel currently driven by the manual process.

Project Scope

This design team on this project will have a fantastic opportunity to establish a baseline for a new aircraft production process. Building on the work done by a previous design team during the 2012-2013 academic year, this new team will be responsible for enabling a robotic system to provide for accurate and repeatable sealant beads to be applied in two-dimensional space. There are a number of components expected to be part of the desired solution here: robot, sealant mixing/dispensing units, etc. HOS Aerospace will be providing these elements, and the robot is already at Michigan Tech (in B004). The team wiII be responsible for the design and engineering of the device and the integration of these elements into a functional solution.

At the team's request the customer will provide the following:

• two-part sealant for use in developing device

• all relevant standards and specifications

• Michigan Tech will provide copy of final report from last year's team- this new team should read that at start of project to understand what was done, status of robot at Tech, recommendations, etc ...

Project Objectives

• Two dimensional application of sealant

• Compliant end effector to follow seams

• Vision to see the target and validate the bead

Awarded Amount: $30,780

I/UCRC: Novel High Voltage/Temperature Materials and Structures

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $30,780

Enterprise: Pump in a Hub

Investigators
Primary Investigator: John Gershenson
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Project Description

Specialized bikes is enlisting the help of MTU to engineer and prototype a bicycle pump that is packaged inside of the wheel hub allowing the rider to adjust tire pressure on the fly.

Project Scope

It has been determined by our R&D team that having the ability to adjust tire pressure on the fly could be a huge performance advantage for certain types of terrain. A first shot at designing this concept has been completed, but some challenges remain.

The goal for this product is to house a light weight pump mechanism at the wheel center that allows the rider to adjust between two pre-set tire pressures.

Project Goals

1. Evaluate current concept and check performance (PSI/second evaluation, power required)

2. Counter with other concepts that could improve design

3. Propose method for switching between selected pressures

a. Largest challenge at the moment is how to switch from one pressure setting to the other. This switching mechanism is the crux of the project

4. Develop working prototype that satisfies performance requirements

Go To Market Strategy

This prototype will be used as the backbone for a commercially used product that we spec on future projects.

Current Challenges

1. There may be existing patents for a design similar to this

2. The switching mechanism has not been designed yet. It is the major project challenge

3. It is not being addressed currently due to lack of resources

Materials Provided

• Specialized will provide a 3D model of the concept.

• Specialized will offer help in machining prototype parts

Deliverables

1. An evaluation of the current concept which would include;

    a. Performance evaluation, what can this prototype achieve in terms of physical performance

    b. Is this in violation of any current patents

2. A concept for switching between pressures

3. A working prototype

Awarded Amount: $14,870

Trajectory Optimization for Solar Electric Propulsion Satellites

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Ossama Abdelkhalik
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The investigation of a low cost SEP microsatellite capable of launching within an ESP A class rideshare opportunity. The research is focused is on optimizing the low-thrust trajectory to minimize satellite hardware and operation costs while maintaining the ESPA class requirements. In particular, the solar array and mission operation costs as a function of array power and inclination of the spacecraft orbit as it transits the radiation belts. As power increases, trip time and thus radiation exposure and operation costs decrease. However, large solar arrays increase cost and the mass reduces payload capability. Also, varying inclinations follow different trajectories through the radiation belts as they reach their final orbits. Trajectories that start at a higher inclination have a longer path, but pass through lower intensity radiation bands. This can decrease the size and costs of the solar arrays, but requires larger Δ Vs and reduces payload capabilities

Tasks and Deliverables:

1. Provide a trajectory optimization of the SolRider vehicle to minimize cost of the following orbit transfers:

2. Analysis should consider the following variables/factors. Values are provided in the Solar Rider specification.

    a. Radiation degradation of solar arrays

    b. Solar Array $/W

    c. Solar Array kg/W

    d. Propellant & Tank Mass

    e. Mission operations cost: $/day

    f. Thruster shut down and start up due to eclipse

    g. Atmospheric Drag

3.   Deliverables:

    a. For each transfer orbit:

        i. Normalized Cost vs. Array Power

        ii. Trip Time vs. A1Tay Power

        iii. Payload Mass v. Array Power

        iv. Radiation Degradation v. Array Power

    b. For the LEO to GEO transfer orbit

        i. Normalized Cost v. Initial Inclination

        ii. Trip Time v. Initial Inclination

        iii.. Payload Mass v. Initial Inclination

        iv. Radiation Degradation v. Initial Inclination

c. Input files

d. Raw Output Data

Awarded Amount: $10,000

Senior Design: Piston Phone Adapter Design

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and prototype a pistonphone adapter for the 9110D Portable Vibration Calibrator.

Background

The Modal Shop is in the business of selling calibration instruments for both sound and vibration. Pistonphones are acoustical calibrators, and have been in existence since the 1960's. They consist of a fixed volume, fixed stroke piston actuated so as to provide a precise fixed sound level reference at 250 Hz. These devices suffer high harmonic content due to the mechanical design but are quite robust and rugged as well as expensive. The Modal Shop has designed and marketed a portable vibration calibrator containing a reference accelerometer, shaker, power amplifier and closed loop sine controller marked as the 9110D 1

• The 9110D is capable of accepting a bracket atop the shaker platform such that proximity probe holder may be mounted, enabling calibration of proximity probes. The 9110D furthermore may be operated in "displacement mode" whereby it's readout displays units of displacement. The 9110D is furthermore ":frequency agile" in that a user may select any frequency between 7 and 10,000 Hz for operation.

Need(s) Addressed

Given the existing feature set and modular design the Portable Vibration Calibrator of the 9110D calibrator, integration of pistonphone functionality is seen to be a natural progression in its development.

Project Scope

Design a "Pistonphone adaptor", including adaptor inserts for different sized microphones which will fit atop the 9110D in a similar fashion to the proximity probe holder and permit the 9110D to operate as a frequency agile Pistonphone calibrator. Examination of the Gras and B&K Pistonphones is encouraged. Use the 9110D "as is" so the finished output of the project may be marketed as an option to the 9110D calibrator enabling it to provide simple calibration to microphones and other pressure sensing devices.

Awarded Amount: $11,896

Senior Design: Infrared Vibratory PET Cyrstallizer

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gregory Odegard
Co-PI: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and prototype an infrared continuous convey vibratory PET crystallizer.

Background

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is widely used for packaging foods and beverages, such as water and soda bottles. Recycled, also called reground, PET is used to make new bottles, carpet, clothing, and automotive parts. During the drying process the reground PET tends to form clumps and stick to the dryer hopper walls. By recrystallizing the reground PET, the drying process can be performed without clumping of material, preventing bridging.

Need(s) Addressed

The current crystallizer design in use is either a hopper or rotating drum design. The hopper design requires the process to be repeated and the rotating drum design is not ideal for a continuous process. In addition, both designs require a considerable amount of space with large operating costs. The existing solution for crystallization is functioning and being used throughout the industry; however, a more efficient and productive design is desired. Recycling PET material can be achieved much more efficiently with a continuous convey crystallizer that requires less energy and space than that of the contemporary design. A need has thus been identified to design a more efficient crystallizer capable of continuous convey. Along with this need, an opportunity exists to increase the overall efficiency of the PET recycling process.

Project Scope

This project will focus on the design of an infrared continuous convey vibratory PET crystallizer. The design team will be provided with a conceptual sketch (Attachment A) of the crystallizer process to work with before the design starts. However, the specifics of how the concept becomes a prototype is in the hands of the design team, along with a number of requirements any new design must meet The new design will not have the same makeup as the current designs and will use infrared technology. The design team is encouraged to use a creative approach to design the crystallizer since it does not currently exist on the market. The crystallizer should also be controlled in a way that allows for easy adjustment of flow rate and temperature. A single controller is desired so that operation can be monitored and adjusted from one location. A modular design should be considered to make maintenance a simple task. The project goal is to design and build a functionally demonstrative prototype of an infrared vibratory PET crystallizer as described and specified above.

At the team's request the customer will provide the following:

- Aid in understanding functionality of controls and components

- Information and details on customers' current products that will need to be used in collaboration with the crystallizer

-  Design constraints and specifications size/shape/volume, mounting hard points, etc.

Project Objectives

Design and build a functionally demonstrative prototype of an infrared vibratory PET crystallizer incorporating:

- Infrared technology

- Vibratory motors

- Continuous process ready for PET pellets

-  Modular (i.e. plug and play) layout capable of stacking vertically central controller for entire design (provided by ABS)

-  Minimum of 5 pounds per hour of material throughput per module, maximum to be determined by design team

-  Banked heating with 180°F-220°F adjustable temperature range

Awarded Amount: $30,780

Senior Design: Lightweight Pop Rivet Tool with Reporting Capability

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and demonstrate an improved (reduced weight) POP rivet installation tool.

Background

Those familiar with the automotive assembly process and have a basic understanding of manufacturing constraints such has cycle time, repeatability, durability, and ergonomic limitations.

Need(s) Addressed

Chrysler has found an opportunity for engineering students to become exposed to the assembly environment by reviewing and redesigning components or systems of a POP rivet gun air tool. The use of rivets as an attachment mechanism is expected to increase. Also, the further an assembly plant operator has to hold the rivet tool away from the centerline of his/her body, the more the weight of the tool becomes critical. Reducing the weight of the tool even by ounces will allow the operator to hold the tool longer and will increase the repeatability of the process. Additionally, current tools do not have the ability to measure the stroke and force of the rivet while it is being strained. A modular measurement device mounted on the rivet tool should also be integrated into the design.

Project Scope

This project team will investigate lighter weight designs of components and or systems that make up a POP rivet air tool. This project will optimize current POP rivet air tool designs such that Chrysler will be able to allow the repeated use of this tool for extended periods of time. Ideally, this design can be used in multiple assembly plant on different vehicle platforms.

At the team's request the customer will provide the following:

• Detailed data defining existing tooling and known constraints

• Samples of current hardware- POP rivet guns and unused rivets

• Initial overview and definition of known issues, alternatives considered, and options available

Project Objectives

• Design, prototype, and demonstrate an updated design of a POP rivet tool. Design options considered must respect the following:

- Safety

-  Design must be easy to use and WILL NOT introduce any risk while in use or being repaired

-  Ergonomically easy to use

-  Design must consider balance of tool

-  Design must consider trigger placement

-  Design must consider operator feedback for a successful shot

Reduced weight

-  Design may use lighter weight materials

-  Design may use weight optimized components

-  Design may use few parts

-  Design must be able to withstand several drops from approximately 3 feet and still function properly

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Senior Design: Roadside Repair Module

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Goal

Design and demonstrate a better way of lowering an under slung spare tire and packaging all of the tools and accessories necessary in the same space.

Background

Most anyone reading this brief will be familiar with the practice of packaging of roadside repair modules and/or spare tires with any modem passenger car or truck. Configurations of this content will vary somewhat from vehicle to vehicle, although the fundamental purpose is the same: to provide for emergency roadside repairs in as efficient a manner as possible.

Need(s) Addressed

Chrysler has identified room for improvement in their spare tire package tray in their current SUV product line. The current method of lowering the spare requires a winch, which is right in the middle of the package tray and takes up valuable real estate. This scheme would benefit from a fresh design approach, and some of the known design constraints would be the exhaust, heat shields, rear differential...etc.

Project Scope

This project team will investigate more compact winch mechanisms and different alterative of mounting an under-slung spare tire to the rear of the vehicle.

This project is relative to a 2017 vehicle currently in development. Many may ask: why package a spare tire just use run flat tires or provide an inflator kit? The reason is run flats are expensive and degrade Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics of the vehicle.

Inflator kits are offered with each vehicle. In fact the spare tire on all of our vehicles is optional.

The issue is that the NAFTA customer still wants a spare tire and therefore the take rate of the spare tire option is relatively high.

At the team's request the customer will provide the following:

• Detailed data defining existing design space and known constraints

• Samples of current hardware- spare tire, tools, rear floor pan

• Initial overview and definition of known issues, alternatives considered, and options available

Project Objectives

• Design, prototype, and demonstrate a novel emergency roadside repair module suitable for an SUV platform

- Design options considered must respect the following:

- Monumental Components- these cannot be moved, nor can their space be violated:

- Rear Bumper Beam

- Trailer Hitch Beam

- Outer Vehicle Profile

- Inner/Outer Closeout Panels

- Suspension/Cradle

- Rails with PLP holes

- Bumper Beam & Closure Panel Attachments

- Third Row Seats

- Tools in the rear floor panel tub can be re-arranged to fit the winch mechanism in a desirable method, current or deeper tool tub depth is desired.

- The spare tire can be under-slung with a winch mechanism, a cage, or a method that has not yet been investigated.

Awarded Amount: $26,765

Modeling and Control Technologies for Near-Term and Long-Term Networked Microgrids

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Wayne Weaver
Co-PI: Gordon Parker
Co-PI: Chee-Wooi Ten
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $26,765

High Impact STEM Outreach Utilizing the MTU Mobile Laboratory at 2013 Heros Alliance Parental Bootcamp

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Michigan Tech Mobile Lab, will be utilized to deliver hands-on, short duration, high-impact Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) based explorations at the 2013 Heroes Alliance Parental Boot Camp on August 17th, 2013.

The outreach activities will be setup and delivered by the Mobile Lab's trained team of Staff and Students. The STEM outreach activities will be organized to follow a systems level approach and will be themed around sustainable transportation. Upon approaching the lab, participants will be greeted and introduced to the concept of sustainable transportation, the importance of the concept, and the role that Scientists and Engineers play in this area. Also at this time, participants will learn that Hybrid Vehicles are one element of sustainable transportation, and will learn the basics of hybrid vehicles by seeing actual production and educational based hybrid vehicles.

Upon entering the lab, participants will have the opportunity to explore several work stations, each with a Mobile Lab Mentor. The explorations at the work stations are designed to show participants how each of the major subsystems of a Hybrid Vehicle works, and how important STEM is in continuing to improve those subsystems and move along the pathway towards sustainable transportation.

Explorations may include:

• How it works: Electric Machines

• How it works: Batteries

• How it works: Engines

• How it works: Aerodynamics

• How it works: Controls

• Powertrain Testing

• Vehicle Testing

• Effect of Vehicle Parameters on Performance

 

The exploration Mentor can adjust the activity depth and content "on the fly" such that the activity is exciting and educational to the wide range of participants that attend public outreach events

Awarded Amount: $19,099

Assist in Planning of Development of RMCP Platform Concepts

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jason Blough
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $16,500

Senior Design: Chrysler Ram Tailgate

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

The Senior Capstone Design (SCD) Program in Mechanical Engineering builds on our lab based "hands-on" curriculum to provide students "their first job, not their last class," while helping our customers - companies, entrepreneurs, and non-profit entities - address their aggressive goals and tight budgets while providing a fresh perspective. Our teams are formed by considering student background, interests, and thinking preferences. Student teams are advised by an eight-person Advisory Team, the members of which are selected based on their technical expertise - to cover the array of typical technical needs associated with projects - and for their proven ability to guide students in solving real, applied problems. Our projects span two semesters beginning with the development of a project plan, where end-user needs, customer needs, project objectives, constraints, and metrics for success are defined. Proceeding through concept generation and selection, then through the system- and component-level design stages, each team ultimately produces a functionally demonstrative prototype that is tested and reworked toward meeting the design requirements. Projects commence in late August and early January.

Project Description

Design, engineer, build, and test a new carbon fiber lightweight tailgate with an aluminum sub-structure. The first goal is to save a minimum of 25% weight over the current steel design. Additional goal will be to incorporate a unique selling feature into the design of the gate that provides an alternative function of the tailgate that can be marketed. Intent is to create a product that can be used for a limited volume high performance vehicle or eco fuel-efficient package.

Background

The Dodge Ram full size pickup is a very important vehicle for Chrysler Corporation and is considered one of the primary pillars and major profit generators. The truck is very popular in a wide variety of markets from personal use to commercial applications. Two plants currently build the RAM truck with volume exceeding 300,000 units per year (Warren Truck Assembly Plant and Saltillo Assembly Plant). The push for improved fuel economy is driving the company to look for ways to save weight while maintaining the functionality that the customer has come to expect. This project is intended to create what is called a "buzz" model, which is limited in volume (5000 units), is aspirational, and contains features not normally available in other mainstream vehicles. Carbon Fiber is a very high tech material and its appearance on the exterior of the truck communicates a perception of performance equivalent to high-end sports cars. It provides outstanding strength to-weight ratio, which will provide a solid platform to save mass. In addition to simply saving weight, the goal of the team is to develop a unique selling feature designed into the tailgate. Some ideas that have been discussed are an integrated barbeque, storage compartment, fold out table, step assist. There have even been really creative ideas such as a fish cleaning station, or clay pigeon throwing mechanism. Bottom line is the team will need to brainstorm different ideas that would be marketable to a specific segment of the population and design the feature into the tailgate.

Need(s) Addressed

Excess mass in any motor vehicle today relates directly to fuel inefficiency. It is critical for carmakers today to minimize any mass in the vehicle that is not necessary. The current steel design of the Tailgate weighs 60 pounds. The goal of this project is to save a minimum of 25%

(15 lbs) while being manufacturable, production-viable, cost efficient, and meet all structural and customer performance requirements as outlined in the design validation plan (DVP&R).

Additionally, incorporate an alternative function into the Tailgate as previously described and demonstrate its function. The team will need to develop appropriate tests for whatever feature is decided on to ensure all range of customer usage can be done robustly without failure.

Project Scope

This design project will focus on designing and developing a lightweight tailgate concept that meets the customer functional objectives and amazes them with dual-purpose function. In general, the swing gate must:

• Meet all static and dynamic load cases as specified in DVP&R.

• Contain design provisions for use of existing hardware (latch/striker, handles etc).

• 25% lighter than current design.

• Production manufacturable using available processes.

• Cost efficient such that business case is positive and tooling is paid for in 1 year.

Awarded Amount: $20,432

IP8 Ignition and Liquid Length Studies

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $98,352

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Resource Sharing

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gordon Parker
Co-PI: Wayne Weaver
Co-PI: Steven Goldsmith
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Overview

The existing communication layer for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operations has sufficient throughput and capabilities for basic connectivity, but may not have enough for tasks such as operating military vehicle systems remotely. They cyber security approach to V2G operations has had some development in industry; however military vehicles demand more scrutiny from a cyber security perspective.

Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) resource sharing would enable a greatly expanded flexibility for utilization of assets for forward operating bases (FOB). Consider a FOB with a variety of vehicle assets, each with different levels of functionality. The ability to daisy-chain the vehicle assets together (including partially disabled vehicles), have the vehicles automatically determine their net capability and then share resources to accomplish a common goal (force protection for example), would enable a level of capability not currently available.

Specific Tasks: Vehicle-to-Grid Simulation, Connection Protocol Assessment, Connection Protocol Development, Throughput Assessment, and Simulation Studies.

Mobile Lab HEV Courses for Ford Motor Company

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Overview

Hands-on education with the Michigan Tech Mobile Lab will be utilized to deliver the training to Ford employees during Ford's annual training week in October of 2013.

Audience

This training is intended for Engineers, Managers, and Technicians who are either new to the area of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or wish to broaden their knowledge to assist in vehicle integration or communication with colleagues across various HEV subsystems. An engineering degree is recommended, but not required for this training. The proposed sessions are designed for a maximum of 20 participants. There is no minimum number of participants.

Outline

The proposed hands-on training covers several topics in HEV's and EV's. The hands-on training takes place over 5 days and is comprised of 6 topical modules. The material is a mix of traditional direct learning and hands-on experimentation with data analysis and discussion. The direct learning portion is taught from the Mobile Lab's classroom, which seats up to 20 participants. The hands-on experimentation will be conducted utilizing a multitude of the Mobile Lab's equipment which may include production hybrid vehicles, a configurable hybrid vehicle, vehicle chassis dynamometer, and hybrid powertrain test cells. Each module is repeated at least 3 times, allowing for as many as 60 participants to be exposed to that particular subject matter. Participants can attend all 6 modules, or choose to only attend those which they find will be the most beneficial to them.

Awarded Amount: $20,997

CAREER: A New Perspective on Biomineralization in Healthy and Dysfunctional Ferritins

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Tolou Shokuhfar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $20,997

MTU Consortium in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Research

Investigators
Primary Investigator: John Johnson
Co-PI: Gordon Parker
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

MTU Consortium in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Research

Starting from a well-established research program and as a result of a Dept. of Energy 3 year project, we have significantly enhanced our laboratory, experimental methods and procedures, and modeling/estimator capability.  The faculty and students have produced thirteen publications from this research.

Consortium Goal:

The underling goal of the consortium is to develop and conduct precompetitive research on advanced aftertreatment systems through experimental engine methods, development and calibration of high fidelity models, and development and application of estimators and controllers. Achieving this goal will provide an improved understanding of the systems under dynamic and low temperature conditions characteristic of advanced medium and heavy duty diesel engines allowing the consortium members to apply this knowledge and models to improve system performance, reduce cost, and develop new approaches to diagnostics and increase robustness of their on-board-diagnostics.

Research Activities:

The existing facilities and an extensive model base will be used as developed in previous research including the current DOE program. This includes temperature controlled exhaust, positive torque drive cycles, and validated component models and estimators. Additionally we will add real-time functionality to perform aftertreatment estimation and control in the engine test cell.

The consortium research themes integrate fundamental and applied aspects of (1) Experimental Engine Studies (2) Modeling and Simulation and (3) Estimation, Control, and diagnostics. The proposed research is split into three major themes (I) Experimental, (II) Modeling, and (III) Estimation and Controls with a number of outcomes from the composite research program.

Areas of study will be determined based upon proposed research by MTU with input from the Partners to direct the research.

Based upon input from our partners and continuing some efforts from the DOE program, the following have been identified as key areas from which yearly research topics will be selected.

  • Experimentally validated reduced order models and state estimation algorithms of aftertreatment components which are accurate for low temperature and dynamic operation.
  • Quantify particulate matter (PM) maldistribution, loading, and NO2/PM ratio effects on passive and active regeneration, bio-fuel blends, and aging for catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs).
  • Increased knowledge of ammonia (NH3) storage behavior, optimal NH3 loading, hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, and aging for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts
  • Understanding effect of sensor type/configuration on state estimation quality.
  • Optimal reductant strategies for SCR operation and CPF regeneration.
  • Integrated response and optimization of engine feedgas and aftertreatment systems
  • Thermal control of the aftertreatment components for light-off, maintaining operational temperature, and regeneration relevant to engine low temperature operation and integration with exhaust energy recovery systems
  • Fundamental studies of DEF introduction and functional responses – hydrolysis and pyrolysis
  • Diagnostic concept development: Based upon existing virtual sensor and estimator work this will be translated into system and component diagnostics
  • Sensor displacement by applying estimators and virtual sensors. For example, determining whether a NH3 sensor is needed if an accurate SCR NH3 storage model is available.
  • Improved DPF PM estimation and measurement. Although systems are going to increase passive oxidation with engines moving to higher NOX and lower PM, this is still an important research area to improve methods to accurately estimate CPF loading.
  • Alternative and integrated aftertreatment technologies such as integrated SCR with PM filtration. Many fundamental questions remain about this technology including architecture of combining functions that still enable high passive PM oxidation and high NOX conversion.
  • PM Sampling and related diagnostic use. Quantifying the effect of sensor location on the ability to detect failures. does it matter where the sensor is and what the type of failure is. e.g.  For example, how does the location of the PM sensor impact the speed of CPF melt down detection and can this speed of detection be optimized?
Awarded Amount: $880,841

CAREER: Steerable Powered Ankle-foot Prostheses for Increased Mobility in Amputees

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Mohammad Rastgaar Aagaah
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $880,841

Low-Cost Underwater Glider Fleet for Littoral Marine Research

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Nina Mahmoudian
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $880,841

Investigation of Igniter Geometry as an Enabler for Improved Dilution Tolerance and Increased Burn Rates in SI Engines

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

OVERVIEW

This Statement of Work (SOW) proposes an experimental study to assess the impacts of a spark plug, employing advanced geometry and technology, on the performance of a modern automotive engine. Phase I of the study will be a proof of concept test to generate preliminary engine based results at a limited speed and load condition. Phase II of the study will be expanded to focus on a wider range of operating conditions including full-load and part-load operating conditions, and will examine performance parameters including brake power, fuel consumption, and combustion stability, as well as diagnostic parameters including combustion phasing, burn rates, bum duration, Mean Effective Pressures and their cyclic variation, Indicated Efficiency, and engine out emissions. Phase II testing will also include optical studies in Michigan Tech's unique Combustion Vessel.

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this experimental study are to:

1. Compare the PowerSTAR Spark Plug to the production spark plug under full-load conditions, primarily examining the effect on engine output, with spark timing and A/F optimized for each spark plug, as well as with the engine ECU parameters left as calibrated.

2. Compare the PowerSTAR Spark Plug to the production spark plug under part-load conditions, primarily examining the potential of the PowerSTAR spark plug to increase the dilution tolerance, and increase combustion stability.

3. Compare the PowerSTAR Spark Plug to the production spark plug in an optical combustion vessel.

Awarded Amount: $5,094

Mass Measurements of an Electrospray Beam from a Single Emitter Ionic Liquid

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Lyon King
Co-PI: Kurt Terhune
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $5,094

A New Experiment for Determining Evaporation and Condensation Coeefficients of Cryogenic Propellants and Development of an Efficient Computational Model of Cryogenic Film Stability in Microgravity

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Allen
Co-PI: Chang Kyoung Choi
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $5,094

An Overview of Powertrain Testcell Technologies

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $5,979

Titan Agriculture and Off-Road Tire Test Fixture

Investigators
Primary Investigator: John Beard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Introduction

Soil compaction is a function of numerous variables such as vertical tire load, lug and cavity shape, tire width and diameter, bias or radial construction, dynamic loading, tire pressure, soil type, moisture content and wheel slippage. Soil compaction testing facilities utilize various methods for loading the tire, measuring compaction and tire-soil interface for a broad range of tires, loading conditions, soil moisture, etc.

 

Problem Statement

The proposed work is the design and fabrication of a tire test fixture to measure the influence of tire pressure, vertical and draw bar loads on soil compaction for agricultural and off-road tires. The fixture will apply calibrated vertical and draw bar loads. The stress distribution in the soil pan will be measured with pressure pads.

Awarded Amount: $120,275

Development of Biomass Torrefaction for Coal-fired (CF) Power Industry

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Predebon
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $150,000

MTU Combustion Vessel Test - Phase 1: Effect of Low Turbulent Velocity on Spark Channel and Flame Kernel Formation Processes in Propane-EGR Mixtures

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Seong-Young Lee
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $48,000

Enterprise: Bluetooth Remote Chock Actuation

Investigators
Primary Investigator: John Gershenson
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $7,435

Agent Based Control with Application to Microgrids with High Penetration Renewables

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gordon Parker
Co-PI: Wayne Weaver
Co-PI: Steven Goldsmith
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Abstract

Prior Work is leveraged; MTU has developed and demonstrated through simulation a prototype multiagent system that coordinates the life cycle operations of a microgrid collective composed of independent electric power sources, loads, and storage. MTU has performed simulations of DC micro grids of varying compositions and characteristics. MTU has analyzed simulation results, and developed candidate architectures and protocols for agent-based microgrid controls.

Objective

Execution of this project will further technical innovations associated with multi-agent software controlling microgrid collectives. The microgrid control algorithms for microgrid collectives will be developed and refined using Michigan Tech microgrid models and simulations validated against the MTU test bench. The algorithms will then be applied to SNL hardware models in simulation and finally against the SNL hardware test bed.

Scope

Agent-based control systems will be further developed by MTU in Matlab/Simulink blocks, tested, and refined through simulations. Once control performance objectives have been achieved, the systems will be ported to the MTU situated multi-agent system (MAS) and supporting servo loop controllers on the MTU test bench for evaluation. New Matlab simulations will be tailored and tuned to control the SNL test bed models and verified in simulation. SNL will re-apply the MTU MAS to the physical SNL test bed. SNL will collaborate with MTU on implementation and validation. Collaborative efforts will ensure that SNL attains the technology necessary to achieve the final project objectives for the SNL test bed

Required Research Innovations:

1. Identify control system performance issues between agent informatics and DC nonlinear controls. Since global computations require input from various points, processor speed and network bandwidth may dominate the performance of collaborative protocols that rely on nonlinear control approaches. Research must identify the computational and communication limits for porting nonlinear controls to agent control layers.

2. Investigate scaling properties for controls applied to increasing the number of interconnected DC microgrids. Trading power between microgrids may not be feasible due to geographical distances or communication time latencies. There may also be thresholds identified for collaboration considerations, such as partnering with 10 microgrids or less, due to the global computation requirements. Control scaling results should describe the appropriate considerations at various time scales (seconds, minutes, hours, and days). Additional considerations for scalability may include increasing the number of components within a single microgrid and increasing the variety of components within the microgrid.

Collaborative Research: Self-circulating, Self-regulating Microreactor for On-chip Gas Generation from Liquid Reactants

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Dennis Meng
Co-PI: Craig Friedrich
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $252,216

Diagnosing Induction System Degradation and Evaluation of Remedial Chemicals in Automotive Engines

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeremy Worm
Co-PI: Jeffrey Naber
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

OVERVIEW

Following a project to evaluate the AUTOEKG FSA8 on four vehicles "Diagnosing Induction System Degradation and Evaluation of Remedial Chemicals in Automotive Engines," it has been mutually determined by ITW and Michigan Tech that additional testing should take place. The additional testing will be done on a population of 30 vehicles, but will not include the extensive tests and measurements taken during the first study.

The population of 30 vehicles will allow for more statistically significant results. The study will be advertised in a Michigan Tech newsletter to find willing participants. Participants will be incentivized with a pre-paid gift card. The volunteered vehicles will first be examined by the research team to ensure the vehicles meet the requirements of the project. After choosing 30 suitable vehicles, each vehicle will be scheduled for an appointment at the Advanced Power Systems Research Center. During this appointment each of the vehicles will have borescope images taken of at least 1 intake valve, and have EKGFSA scores recorded. A portion of the vehicles will have their fuel systems cleaned using ITW chemical products, while a portion will remain as a control group. The owners will be instructed to consume 1 tank of fuel, then bring their vehicle back In for a follow-up appointment, where once again EKGFSA scores will be recorded and borescope images collected. Following this work, results will be summarized and presented to ITW in a web conference. A written report will also be issued.

Awarded Amount: $121,395

NSF Graduate Research Fellowship: Technologies for Developing Countries

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Naber
Co-PI: Joshua Pearce
Co-PI: Joshua Pearce
Co-PI: Michele Miller
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

NSF/DOE Parternship on Advanced Combustion Engines: Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Transporation Fuels under Lean-Burn Conditions for Advanced Engines

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Seong-Young Lee
Co-PI: Jaclyn Johnson
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

Multiscale Modeling of Grahite/CNT/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

Deposition Rate of Propellant Backflow from a Magnesium Hall-Effect Thruster

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Mark Hopkins
Co-PI: Lyon King
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

Microsensor for Intramuscular Pressure Measurement

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

Revealing the Inside of a Nanoscale Na-ion Battery: New Understanding on Sodium Intercalation in Cathodes

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $126,000

Michigan Tech Capstone Deisgn Program: Design Challenge

Investigators
Primary Investigator: William Endres
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $59,859

Control System Design for Cargo Transfer from Offshore Supply Vessels to Large Deck Vessels

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gordon Parker
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Introduction

There is a wide range of hydraulic extending-boom and knuckle-boom cranes in use on marine vessels. These cranes are often used in dynamic motion environments for cargo transfer and small boat handling. The ability to safely launch and recover small boats in elevated sea states for naval, Coast Guard and oceanographic purposes is currently a focus of investigation within these communities.

The purpose of this investigation is to extend the research begun under SBIR topic N06-

057, "Cargo Transfer from Offshore Supply Vessels to Large Deck Vessels" to improve the performance of hydraulic marine cranes in the dynamic offshore environment. In addition, the lessons learned during the development of the Integrated Rider Block Tagline System (IRBTS), the Platform Motion Compensation System (PMC) and the Pendulation Control System (PCS) for the rigid-boom, level-luffing marine cranes used for container handling on sealift ships will be incorporated into a final integrated, modular kit to improve cargo transfer with these extending-boom and knuckle-boom cranes.

Phase II Technical Objectives

The goal of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate a modular solution for crane pendulation and motion control suitable for a wide range of existing U.S. Navy ship cranes. Phase I clearly showed that pendulation control can be modularized by implementing ship motion cancellation using the crane's existing drive system and active load damping using a retrofit damping device. In that work, a specific crane design was considered and the study was strictly proof-of-concept through simulation.

Phase II focuses on identifying the range of cranes for which the modular approach is feasible, developing the analysis and design work flow needed to design and deploy the modular solution, and demonstrating both the process and the performance on a particular crane. The incremental technical objectives of Phase II are listed below.

    1. The analysis and design process for implementing modular pendulation and motion control on any crane,

    2. The development of a modular crane control system (MCCS) "kit" including refinement of the key subsystems (sensors, actuation, algorithms),

    3. A phased demonstration of MCCS using 1/12th and larger scale testbeds.

At the conclusion of Phase II, the objective is to have a fully functioning MCCS system demonstrating ship motion cancellation, active payload damping on an articulated crane similar to those currently deployed on numerous U.S. Navy and civilian ships. The Phase II Option will focus this development on a design that can be implemented on the hydraulic extending-boom crane, currently proposed for use on the JHSV.

Awarded Amount: $268,953

High Performance, Durable, Low Cost Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Transportation Applications

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Jeffrey Allen
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Water Management Modeling for Cold Start

Material Property and Segmented Cell Measurements

The objective of this task is measurement of material and transport properties required as inputs for the Anode GDL Model and FEA Model being developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU) and Los Alamos National Lab (LANL) respectively.

 

GDL Modeling for Cold Start

The objective of this task is to determine the most relevant GDL material and transport properties for enabling improved cold-start response. An existing water transport model for hydrophobic GDLs will be modified to accommodate hydrophilic anode GDLs in conjunction with state-of-the-art catalyst layers and membranes.

The Anode GDL model will be used to develop a mechanistic understanding of anode GDL material properties that have a significant affect on low-temperature transient response and cold startup.

 

GDL, MEA Model Integration

The Anode GDL model is a 'local' model focused on a land-channel section of the GDL. This model can be used to track the location of the product water and where evaporation will occur. However the Anode GDL model cannot predict cell performance. The MEA model is a 'cell-level' model that can be used to predict performance response, but requires bulk property relationships for the GDL-MEA interface. For this task, the parameter output of the two models will be integrated. The Anode GDL model will, based on a land-channel unit cell provide bulk transport predictions as source terms for the MEA model. The MEA model will provide the flux conditions for the Anode GDL model. The model integration will be iterative and will need to be conditioned with single-cell experiments. The objective of this task is to develop a design methodology, or design tool, that can be used to predict fuel cell performance for unique combinations of fuel cell component,;. Michigan Tech will work closely with LANL on this task.

 

Model Validation

This task is focused on the design and conduct single-cell experiments for the purpose of generating data sets specifically for model validation; as' opposed to cell performance or durability testing. Experiments  may incorporate  segmentation in order to collect spatially and temporally varying current distribution and to potentially control voltage and current distribution for model validation purposes. The experiments will be conducted at 3M.  Michigan Tech and LANL will provide guidance on experiment conditions to use for validation tests

Awarded Amount: $653,620

Microgrid Modeling and Optimization for High Penetration Renewables Integration

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Gordon Parker
Co-PI: Wayne Weaver
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Abstract

Future microgrids are envisioned having a large renewable energy penetration. While this feature is attractive it also produces design and control challenges that are currently unsolved. To help solve this dilemma, development of analysis methods for design and control of  microgrids with high renewable penetration is the general focus of this activity. The specific foci are (1) reduced order microgrid modeling and (2) optimization strategies to facilitate improved design and control. This will be investigated over a multi-year process that will include simplified microgrid modeling and control, single microgrid modeling and control, collective microgrid modeling and control, and microgrid (single and collective) testing and validation.

Microgrid Reduced Order Modeling (ROM)

Model development is one of the first steps in the microgrid control design process and incurs trade-offs between fidelity and computational expense. Models used for model-based control implementation must be real-time while having sufficient accuracy so that feedforward information can be maximized to achieve specified requirements. The expected outcomes of this study are (1) quantification of model uncertainty as a function of the assumptions with particular interest given to reduced order models (2) determination of appropriate time scales for reduced order modeling and (3) a MATLAB / Simulink reduced order model library of microgrid components. Contrasting different microgrid reduced order modeling approaches and simulation results that demonstrate the reduced order microgrid simulation.

Microgrid Optimization

Demonstrating microgrids with robust and high renewable penetration requires system-level extremization. This includes both its physical and control system designs. The expected outcomes of this study are (1) energy-optimal design methods suitable for microgrid design and control and (2) integration of these strategies with the microgrid reduced order model environment described above. How energy-optimal design can be exploited for microgrid design and control.

Multiscale Model Development and Validation of Graphene/ULTEM Composites for Structural and Noise Reduction Applications

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Odegard
Co-PI: Julia King
Co-PI: Warren Perger
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

New Insights on High Performance Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Collaborative Research: Stronger than Glass Fibers, Stiffer than Steel Wires: A New Perspective into the Mechanics of Cellulose Nanocrystals

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Reza Shahbazian Yassar
Co-PI: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Flow Prediction and Fluctuation-sensitivity Investigations for Quasi-Steady Shear Driven Condensing Flows in Milli-meter to Micro-meter Scale Two-Phase Systems

Investigators
Primary Investigator: Amitabh Narain
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics

Abstract

Advancement in electronic-cooling, avionics-cooling, and spaced based operations have posed enormous engineering challenges of low heat removal rates, high pressure drops, and device-and-system level instabilities. The need, to meet these challenges, is innovations for the critically needed shear dominated boiler and condenser operations. This is to allow efficient removal of large amounts of heat. Even large industrial-scale gravity-driven boiler operations need to be innovated for the next generation combined cycle (or related) electric power plant technologies – towards producing electricity in more efficient and sustainable ways. These innovations need a combined breakthrough in boiler and air-side flow technologies - to meet global energy challenges.

To meet the challenges, on-going research on enabling breakthroughs. These are based on fundamental fluid-physics based experimental discoveries for boiler and condenser operations. For developing scientific knowledge and engineering design tools, these discoveries are also supported by breakthroughs in associated modeling and simulations research.

A key innovative operation procedure introduces passive recirculating vapor flows within the devices. This controls the flows and ensures that very stable boiling and condensing flows occur in a manner where a thin liquid film flow, typically within 0.5 mm thickness, covers the entire heat-exchange surface. A second innovation is introduction of large amplitude waves through controlled resonant pulsations in the liquid film - leading to a 200-1000% enhancement of the heat removal rates. Analysis suggests the underlying physics. As the troughs of the waves on the liquid film approach the wetting heat-exchange surface to within 30-50 μm, the specific location starts exhibiting solid-liquid-vapor interactions phenomena similar to the high heat-flux contact line locations associated with nucleate boiling or drop-wise condensation. Retaining this physics and changing the working fluid to water, ongoing research plans to demonstrate very high heat removal (> 1 kW/cm2) values over the entire length of the innovative devices.

Awarded Amount: $356,601

Meeting the NAE Grand Challenge: Personalized Learning for Engineering Students through Instruction on Metacognition and Motivation Strategies

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Michele Miller
Co-PI: James DeClerck
Co-PI: William Endres
Co-PI: Sheryl Sorby
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $356,601

Michigan Tech SSEED: Sustained Support to Ensure Engineering Degrees

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Michele Miller
Co-PI: Christine Anderson
Co-PI: Jacqueline Huntoon
Co-PI: James Turnquist
Co-PI: Christopher Wojick
College/School: 
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $356,601

CAREER: Dynamics of Fluid-Structure-Control Interaction in Rotating Aerodynamic Bodies

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Fernando Ponta
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $356,601

Michigan AFRL Center of Excellence in Electric Propulsion (MACEEP)

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Lyon King
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $356,601

Multiscale Modeling of Polymer Nanocomposites

Investigators
Principal Investigator: Gregory Odegard
College/School: College of Engineering
Department(s): Mechanical Engineering-Engineering Mechanics
Awarded Amount: $356,601