Collaborative Research: Individual and Collective Dynamics of Marangoni Surface Tension Effects Between Particles
Icorps: Software for Aircraft Analysis and Design
Development of Dynamic Torsional Measurement Capability using Hybrid Electric Motor - Year 2
As the role of the torque converter in the vehicle has changed with the increasing need for better fuel efficiency it has become important to better understand the torsional isolation properties of the torque converter. The torsional isolation performance is accomplished by the fluid coupling portion of the torque converter at low speeds, and by the torque converter clutch assembly once the converter clutch is applied. Recent changes in the operational profile of the torque converter to improve fuel efficiency require that the clutch be applied at lower and lower vehicle speeds. In addition, the use of reduced displacement engines and engine cylinder deactivation results in greater engine torsional excitations at lower engine firing frequencies, demanding increased isolation capability from the torque converter. Due to these changes in operation, as well as the increased torque carrying capacity of the clutch assembly, there is an important need to be able to study the response of the torque converter and clutch assembly to torsional inputs which are representative of the torsional excitation provided by an engine.
This project seeks to develop the necessary test stand to perform these required torsional isolation studies. The hardware will be developed from a hybrid electric drive motor. This project aims to use this motor to develop a torsional dynamometer that can be used to input a torsional excitation to a torque converter that has frequency content similar to an operating internal combustion engine.
Once the dynamometer is functional it will be used to study the isolation performance of torque converter clutch and isolator assemblies. Year two of this project will seek to validate the setup and begin testing torque converter clutch and isolator assemblies for damping characteristics. The experimental data will be used to validate a model methodology for torque converter clutch dampers on select production designs.
3-D Printed Nano-Bioactuators and their Application in Navigation of Endovascular Catheters
Continuation of Engine Ignition Studies-B
Utilize the optical engine to examine the interactions of in-cylinder flow with the ignition process (manipulating discharge characteristics & spark plug design variables) as supplemented by multiple locations of ion sensing.
Fundamental understating of how to optimize the ignition system's design attributes for different engine applications. Increased understanding will result in more efficient & cost effective hardware & controls. This continues work from the Ford funded work through 2016 focused on ignition with optical engine. The work enables the development of a critical understanding of the ignition process and its interaction with the in-cylinder flow. Results will provide quantitative data on ignition processes including the initial flame kernel development, growth and transition to turbulent flame propagation in-cylinder. The results will also provide quantitative data on flow characteristic via high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) around the electrode in the optical engine.
Continue studies of combined imaging with high resolution PIV. High speed imaging and analysis shows high variability cycle to cycle of arc stretch and strong correlation of the arc stretch and flame development and burn rates. Areas of study for this year include:
Studies to be conducted under higher in-cylinder flows with tumble planks installed in the intake port
Studies of alternative geometry plugs
Studies of plug orientation and gap
Chemiluminescent imaging for combustion signature
Advanced Engine Technologies for Light Duty Vehicles Consortium
Statement of Work
Michigan Technological University is presently preparing the Oculus-ASR nanosatellite for launch and in-space operation. The final development activity will be to assemble the satellite structure so that it is compliant with launch vehicle mechanical requirements. This will require integration of flight-quality structural fasteners as well as electrical wire harnessing equipment. Acquire aerospace-grade fasteners and wire harnessing components, and to install and test these components in the Oculus-ASR flight vehicle. Specific tasks include:
(1) Purchase space-flight-quality stainless-steel fasteners
(2) Purchase space-compatible wiring, electrical connectors, and strain-relief components
(3) Acquire and/or build electrical and mechanical testing apparatus to ensure proper installation of fasteners and harnessing
(4) Assemble the Oculus-ASR nanosatellite into a launch-ready configuration
Carbon Nanotube Speaker for Exhaust Active Noise Control
Stratus Meteorological CubeSat: Payload Integration and Mission Level Design:
Understanding of the atmosphere and its processes draws from many fields of science and engineering due to its global scope and importance to life on this planet. The most visible and well known facet of this system would be cloud formations. The varied nature of clouds allows them to act as a herald for near-future meteorological events and as indices for general climate trends. Gathering more data on cloud properties will improve global climate models and forecasting, benefiting the scientific community and general population. This data can be collected via the use of CubeSats.
Stratus is a pathfinder mission whose goal is to build, deploy, and demonstrate a low-cost
CubeSat platfon11 capable of measuring Cloud Fraction (CF), Cloud Top Height (CTH), and Cloud
Top Wind (CTW). If successful, several inexpensive Stratus spacecraft could be deployed in the future to gather accurate and extensive data relevant to cloud-driven climate forecast models at a continuous rate across the world. Stratus will measure CF data while in Nadir-Pointing Mode. Stratus will then measure CTW and CTH data utilizing spin-stabilized stereoscopic imaging. The Stratus mission shares similar goals to NASA as described in the 2014 NASA Strategic Plan document. It is most with objectives 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4 of Goal II: "To advance the understanding of Earth and develop technologies to improve the quality of life on our home planet."
Research Goals & Desired Outcomes
The goals of the payload integration and mission-level design is to produce documentation which can wholly describe the mission operations of Stratus, and to design, implement, and document the payload of the satellite to ensure successful integration. The desired mission outcome is that Stratus is completed, launched, and performs at or above the levels indicated in the mission-level documents. The long-term functionality of Stratus would demonstrate the cost effectiveness of using CubeSats to gather cloud data. This could justify the efficacy of a swarm of Stratus craft to gather global hyper-local weather data.
The desired subsystem outcome is a fully integrated payload subsystem which can accurately image data during nadir-pointing and stereoscopy phases of the mission. This fully characterized subsystem would have all interactions with other subsystems described in Interface Control Documents to ensure safe and correct integration of the payload into Stratus.
The plan of attack for completing research on the Stratus is as follows: (I) Develop mission-level design documentation so stratus is developed with a clear direction. (2) Research and develop methods to improve the ability of the payload to produce accurate, on-demand data retrieval. (3) Document the Stratus payload and its interactions created with other subsystems via Interface Control Documentation. (4) Characterize the payload through rigorous and through testing procedures to ensure intended functionality. Note that some of these processes are cyclic in nature due to redesigns that may occur during the development process.
Understanding and Mitigating Triboelectric Artifacts in Wearable Electronics by Synergic Approaches
Sensor Evaluation and Fusion for Closed Loop Combustion Control (CLCC) for SI Engines
This is continues work from the Ford DOE Program1 on "Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development," and from work completed in 2014-2016 under Ford departmental budget working on Closed Loop Combustion Control (CLCC). As a separate activity a URP is underway working on metrics for combustion control, air-charge estimation, statistically significant combustion control decisions.Work focuses on a Ford 2.0L engine platform with integrated control via strategies connected through the Ford PCM to a Delphi Combustion Pressure Development Controller (CPDC).
Develop and employ closed loop combustion control (CLLC) via in-cylinder sensors with closed loop control for individual cylinder fuel, spark, and overall engine dilution on engine dynamometer with study of steady-state and transient performance. Additionally other sensors including exhaust pressure, integrated and standalone ion sensing will be added to the instrumentation and evaluated with respect to providing information for CLCC.
Collaborative Research: On Making Wave Energy an Economical and Reliable Power Souce for Ocean Measurement Applications
Hydrodynamic Control Using X-Band Radar for Wave Energy Converter Technology
On Integrating Object Detection Capability into a Coastal Energy Conversion System
I/UCRC: Novel High Voltage/Temperature Materials and Structures
Institute for Ultra-Strong Composites by Computational Design (US-COMP)
CAREER: An Ecologically -Inspired Approach to Battery Lifetime Analysis and Testing
NEXTCAR: Connected and Automated Control for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-duty Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Increasing Ship Power System Capability through Exergy Control
Novel Ionomers and Electrode Structures for Improved PEMFC Electrode Performance at Low PGM Loadings
lonomer Development and Characterization
The objective of this task is focused on characterization of novel ionomers as thin film, bulk and electrodes. The Michigan Tech activity will include ex-situ thin film characterization of water transport and swelling, ex-situ bulk characterization of water permeability and oxygen transport of ionomers and electrodes, water imbibition, permeability and wettability of electrodes, and in-cell characterization to extract electrode transport limitation dependency upon ionomer type and content.
NSTF Electrode Development
The objective of this task is focused on characterization of dispersed NSTF electrodes developed by 3M. The Michigan Tech activity will include ex-situ characterization of water imbibition, permeability and wettability and evaluation of electrode transport limitations using in-cell and ex-situ techniques.
The objective of this task is to integrate best-in-class ionomers with dispersed NSTF catalysts. Task focuses on ionomer characterization and is similar in scope and includes water imbibition, permeability and wettability of the dispersed NSTF electrodes as well as in-cell characterization of electrode transport limitations and is similar in scope to Ionomer Development and Characterization.
The objective of this task is to develop a pore-network architecture for the cathode catalyst layer in order to understand and predict oxygen transport limitations and liquid water transport within the electrodes with the novel ionomers. This task is focused on adaptation of the current GDL pore-network model to the cathode electrode by incorporating the necessary framework to account for ionomer and electrochemical reactions, links the new electrode pore-network model to a continuum model for the membrane and anode, and integrating capillary pressure and transport models into the pore-network architecture. This task will be continuous to coincide data and knowledge gained through ex-situ and in-cell characterization testing.
Collaborative Research: On Making Wave Energy an Economical and Reliable Power Source for Ocean Measurement Applications
Development of Advanced Modeling Tools for Diesel Engines
High Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) and High Efficiency Micro-Pilot Ignition Natural Gas Engine
The objective of this project is to develop the combustion system for a low-cost, low diesel contribution, high brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), high-efficiency premixed charge medium/heavy duty (MHD) natural gas engine and demonstrate the technology on an engine with peak thermal efficiency of up to 44%, diesel pilot contribution of 1-5%, and BMEP up to 25 bar. Emissions will be compliant with current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for heavy-duty (HD) on-road engines by using a three-way catalyst.
SCOPE OF WORK:
This project will evaluate and develop solutions to the barriers to micro-pilot combustion in a stoichiometric natural gas engine. A combination of combustion vessel (CV) testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation will evaluate fundamental limitations and develop solutions. The results will then be applied to a multi-cylinder engine test bed, where the combustion system will be developed and emissions and efficiency demonstrated.
The project will be conducted in 3 budget periods:
Budget Period 1: Fundamental study of micro-pilot NG ignition
In BP 1, prior art on micro-pilot natural gas (NG) ignition will be investigated, CV will be set up and used to conduct some preliminary study on micro-pilot NG ignition, combustions models will be validated using existing data, and engine baseline will be established.
Budget Period 2: Development of micro-pilot NG combustion
In BP2, more CV testing will be conducted to further develop the micro-pilot NG ignition concept.
Engine testing will then be carried out using the promising design and operating conditions determined by the CV and CFD simulation.
Budget Period 3: Optimization of micro-pilot NG engine
In BP3, micro-pilot NG engine concept will be further optimized on the engine with the help of both CV testing and CFD simulation. Based on that, design specifications will be provided and the readiness of the technology for commercialization will be assessed.
Auris: A CubeSat to Characterize and Locate Geostationary Communication Emitters
Stratus: A CubeSat to Measure Cloud Structure and Winds
Senior Design: Flywheel Balance Measurement System
Create a flywheel balance measurement process that yields improved performance versus currently available methods and equipment.
The current best industry practice for measuring the imbalance of flywheels produces results that are inconsistent and has insufficient sensitivity. Mercury has not been able to identify equipment that can demonstrate statistically acceptable results for Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R). It appears that the flywheel balancing process is not completely understood by suppliers currently providing balance measurement equipment.
This project will focus on identifying a methodology to measure the imbalance of a single mass marine flywheel within a set weight and diameter range. The design team on this project will initially research past and current methods of measuring imbalance initially starting with focusing on other rotating assemblies outside the current flywheel methods. Based on research results, the team will devise a concept for the measurement process, construct a prototype, and use the prototype to produce data demonstrating validity of the concept.
The existing methods for flywheel balance measurement are evolutionary and very similar to one another. These methods have demonstrated low repeatability and have low accuracy relative to some existing part tolerances. A new method will be developed with an alternative technology and not focusing on current practices.
• Design concept for a flywheel balance measurement system
• Prototype unit based on the design concept
• Data set demonstrating concept validation
On Integrating New Capability into Coastal Energy Conversion Systems
MTU will analyze and simulate the power capture from arrays of wave energy converters (WECs) with and without the presence of an object. Nonlinear WECs will be analyzed and exploited for more energy capture. For object detection, MTU will develop an estimator. In addition to having a model that detects the presence of an object, the estimator will use that model and account for uncertainties that we have in the model and also measurement errors; in any case we need to know statistical characteristics about these uncertainties and errors. MTU will participate in the WEC array overall design, analysis, modeling and simulations; control design for Design 2, nonlinear modeling and control, and topology optimization.
Developing a Talent Pipeline: Inspiring Future Naval Engineers and Scientists using Real-World Project Based Instruction
High BMEP and High Efficiency Micro-Pilot Ignition Natural Gas Engine
Toward Undersea Persistence
Evaporation Sub-Model Development for Volume of Fluid (eVOF) Method Applicable to Spray-Wall Interaction Including Film Characteristics with Validation at High Pressure-Temperature Conditions
Center for Novel High Voltage Temperature Materials and Structures
Center for Novel High Voltage/Temperature Materials and Structures
CAREER: Autonomous Underwater Power Distribution System for Continuous Operation
CPS: Breakthrough: Toward Revolutionary Algorithms for Cyber-Physical Systems Architecture Optimization
MRI: Acquisition of a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope for In Situ Microscopy Research and Education
NRI: Co-Robots to Engage Next Generation of Students in STEM Learning
Electrospray from Magneto-Electrostatic Instabilities
Fundamental Investigations for Very High Heat-Flux Innovative Operations of Milli-Meter Scale Flow Boilers
I/UCRC: Novel High Voltage/Temperature Materials and Structures
CAREER: A New Perspective on Biomineralization in Healthy and Dysfunctional Ferritins
Overview: Apoferritin is an organic cage that captures the toxic free ferrous ions and transforms them into a ferrihydrite and iron oxide crystalline nanoparticle through a complex biomineralization process (the resulting structural protein is called ferritin). Any dysfunction of ferritin protein can result in iron toxicity, serious illness, chronic diseases, and especially neurological diseases. Dysfunction in ferritin results in the alterations in the biomineralization of the ferritin cores, and therefore, understanding the process of biomineralization within ferritin, is of great importance in the study of neurodegeneration and other chronic diseases. While these unique proteins have been the subject of intense research in biology and chemistry fields due to their importance in many chronic diseases, little effort has been made to unveil the dynamics of such biomineralization processes in liquid conditions. To the Pl's knowledge, there has been no direct evidence at atomic level on how the biomineralization or demineralization inside a ferritin protein progresses over time. This research aims to fill this gap.
The objective of this project is to investigate the in situ crystallization of ferrous ions into crystalline ferrihydrite and iron oxide nanoparticles as well as the demineralization of crystalline core in healthy and dysfunction ferritins in unprecedented resolutions within liquids. In-situ studies conducted inside an atomic resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) enabling imaging at resolutions better than 1A. A miniaturized graphene-based electron transparent bio/nano reactor compatible with the microscope chamber is utilized to preserve the liquid environment inside the electron microscope. In this graphene bio/nano reactor, ferrous ions delivered to apoferritins through break down of liposomes acting as reservoirs of irons to trigger the biomineralization within apoferritins cores.
The research is the first atomic resolution study of proteinmediated biomineralization and demineralization within a liquid media and inside a transmission electron microscope. This CAREER research unfolds: (I) The nucleation and growth mechanisms of mineral core (ferrihydrite and iron oxide crystals), (II) the existence and evolution of atomic defects (vacancy, twinning, misorientation boundaries, amorphous regions, etc) during the crystallization, (Ill) the evolution of chemical gradient from surface to core of crystals during the biomineralization, (IV) the mechanisms of demineralization due to iron release, and (V) The atomic-scale morphological and structural differences between a healthy and dysfunctional ferritins.
This research probes the ground rules for ferritin biomineralization with the goal to unveil the fundamental differences with dysfunctional ferritins responsible for neurological diseases. In addition, a new research field for the utilization of bio/nano reactors to image complex biochemical reactions at atomic resolutions will be developed. The CAREER plan will impact the society by integrating multi-disciplinary research with education at all levels while promoting diversity. Graduate and undergraduate students involved with the project will be trained in cross-cutting areas.
MTU Consortium in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Research
MTU Consortium in Diesel Engine Aftertreatment Research
Starting from a well-established research program and as a result of a Dept. of Energy 3 year project, we have significantly enhanced our laboratory, experimental methods and procedures, and modeling/estimator capability. The faculty and students have produced thirteen publications from this research.
The underling goal of the consortium is to develop and conduct precompetitive research on advanced aftertreatment systems through experimental engine methods, development and calibration of high fidelity models, and development and application of estimators and controllers. Achieving this goal will provide an improved understanding of the systems under dynamic and low temperature conditions characteristic of advanced medium and heavy duty diesel engines allowing the consortium members to apply this knowledge and models to improve system performance, reduce cost, and develop new approaches to diagnostics and increase robustness of their on-board-diagnostics.
The existing facilities and an extensive model base will be used as developed in previous research including the current DOE program. This includes temperature controlled exhaust, positive torque drive cycles, and validated component models and estimators. Additionally we will add real-time functionality to perform aftertreatment estimation and control in the engine test cell.
The consortium research themes integrate fundamental and applied aspects of (1) Experimental Engine Studies (2) Modeling and Simulation and (3) Estimation, Control, and diagnostics. The proposed research is split into three major themes (I) Experimental, (II) Modeling, and (III) Estimation and Controls with a number of outcomes from the composite research program.
Areas of study will be determined based upon proposed research by MTU with input from the Partners to direct the research.
Based upon input from our partners and continuing some efforts from the DOE program, the following have been identified as key areas from which yearly research topics will be selected.
- Experimentally validated reduced order models and state estimation algorithms of aftertreatment components which are accurate for low temperature and dynamic operation.
- Quantify particulate matter (PM) maldistribution, loading, and NO2/PM ratio effects on passive and active regeneration, bio-fuel blends, and aging for catalyzed particulate filters (CPFs).
- Increased knowledge of ammonia (NH3) storage behavior, optimal NH3 loading, hydrocarbon (HC) poisoning, and aging for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts
- Understanding effect of sensor type/configuration on state estimation quality.
- Optimal reductant strategies for SCR operation and CPF regeneration.
- Integrated response and optimization of engine feedgas and aftertreatment systems
- Thermal control of the aftertreatment components for light-off, maintaining operational temperature, and regeneration relevant to engine low temperature operation and integration with exhaust energy recovery systems
- Fundamental studies of DEF introduction and functional responses – hydrolysis and pyrolysis
- Diagnostic concept development: Based upon existing virtual sensor and estimator work this will be translated into system and component diagnostics
- Sensor displacement by applying estimators and virtual sensors. For example, determining whether a NH3 sensor is needed if an accurate SCR NH3 storage model is available.
- Improved DPF PM estimation and measurement. Although systems are going to increase passive oxidation with engines moving to higher NOX and lower PM, this is still an important research area to improve methods to accurately estimate CPF loading.
- Alternative and integrated aftertreatment technologies such as integrated SCR with PM filtration. Many fundamental questions remain about this technology including architecture of combining functions that still enable high passive PM oxidation and high NOX conversion.
- PM Sampling and related diagnostic use. Quantifying the effect of sensor location on the ability to detect failures. does it matter where the sensor is and what the type of failure is. e.g. For example, how does the location of the PM sensor impact the speed of CPF melt down detection and can this speed of detection be optimized?
CAREER: Steerable Powered Ankle-foot Prostheses for Increased Mobility in Amputees