Guidelines for Use
The resources below provide definitions and recommended terms to use in constructing strategic plans for diversity, equity, inclusion, and a sense of belonging (DEIS) at Michigan Tech.
None of the definitions and recommended terms are intended to be authoritative. Experts and members of various identity groups disagree on what some terms mean and how they should be used. However, units can and should use these resources as a primer to begin the conversation—in good faith, with the intent of applying the best terms possible. Aside from some terms that are obviously offensive, we are all learning, and we should be gracious to those who make honest mistakes.
Finally, the material below is not exhaustive, and, ultimately, units will need to make their own decisions about definitions and terms. As always, units are encouraged to consult with the Office of the Vice President for Diversity and Inclusion (OVPDI) on specific questions.
Selected Web Resources
Traditionally, when used as designations of racial/ethnic groups, black and white have not been capitalized. Today, some are capitalizing Black, but not white—though arguments exist to capitalize both. On the other hand, African American, Asian American, and other group names are capitalized. However units decide to handle this issue, it should be done thoughtfully and consistently.
Again, no hard and fast rules exist—but terms can have gray areas and change over time. For example, the term minority was commonly used decades ago, but today it is considered pejorative, and it will likely become inaccurate in America in the coming decades (an alternative option is to say diverse/racial ethnic groups). Underrepresented is another example that is common today, but may not be accurate in all situations—for instance, Asian Americans are not technically underrepresented in certain environments where the term is sometimes applied to them. Underrepresented/underserved is sometimes used as a cover term to identify all diverse racial/ethnic groups.
Another consideration is using terms as nouns or adjectives. A term like “the disabled” should be avoided in favor of “disabled people” (see also reclamation of identity-first language). Saying Black people and White people is better than saying Blacks and Whites. Generally, hyphenate racial descriptors when used as adjectives (e.g., Asian-American students), but not as nouns (e.g., Asian Americans). More specifically, transgender and trans are appropriate as nouns, but never use transgendered.
LGBTQIA+ is the term most frequently used for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, intersex, and asexual individuals. The plus sign is intended to include people who don’t specifically identify with any of those labels. While the complete term is preferred, LGBT or LGBTQ is often used as a convenient shorthand, especially on second use. Another important facet of LGBTQIA+ work—and, indeed, all for facets of DEIS—is allyship. Allyship is the practice of confronting systems of oppression, regardless of its impact on a specific individual, as a social justice issue. For the LGBTQIA+ community, including allyship is often referred to as LGBTQIA+ Allyship.
For years, Native American seemed like a good choice, but some native people prefer American Indian (despite its inaccuracy) because it distinguishes them from anyone who might refer to themselves as “native” Americans because they were born in the United States. As an overall term, Indigenous Americans may be the best designation, but native peoples almost always prefer to be identified by their nation or tribal community (e.g., the Ojibwe Nation or Keweenaw Bay Indian Community) when possible.
Within the disability community, terms such as handicapped and wheelchair-bound are offensive. Avoid words that imply that disabled people are victims, such as “suffers from.” Some differences may seem confusing, but it’s not hard to understand why “person with a mental health condition” is preferred over “mental patient.”
Designations for Black people are quite fluid today. Some object to the term African American because not all Black people who are American citizens strongly identify with this term (for example, those who trace their ancestry to the Caribbean). Some Africans also find the term pejorative. Black people or Black Americans (assuming all included in the group are American citizens) may be the best choice.
Asian American is almost universally recognized as the preferred term.
Given the number of Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries in the Americas, it is not surprising that it is difficult to find a single term to describe people whose origins include these many countries. Hispanic refers to Spain and doesn't accurately describe Brazilians, whose heritage goes back to Portugal. Latino, like Hispanic, is Eurocentric, and it also has a masculine ending in the Spanish and Portuguese languages (though gender in these languages has less to do with human gender than it does in English). The most acceptable term is Latinx, but only a tiny minority of native speakers use it—and most haven’t even heard of it. Further, Latinx is hard to pronounce, especially for Spanish and Portuguese speakers, and many consider it to be an imposed term. Latine has been proposed as an alternative, but it is even less well known than Latinx. OVPDI recommends using Latinx but acknowledges its limitations.