- Meningitis, Meningococcemia (bacteremia), or bacteremic pneumonia.
- Includes meningococcal meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and meningococcemia (extremely severe, invasive infection of the blood stream)
- Sudden fever and severe headache can be initial manifestations.
- Also, stiff neck, mental changes (e.g., malaise, lethargy), vomiting/nausea, hypotension, weakness, confusion, shock, coma, and rash
- Meningococcal bacteria, specifically Neisseria meningitidis
- Through fluids from the mouth or nose via kissing, sharing eating utensils or beverage containers, sharing cigarettes or marijuana and via droplets from coughing and sneezing.
- Rarely and sporadically throughout the year. Outbreaks, which are unusual, tend to occur in the late winter and early spring.
- Confirmed by lumbar puncture (spinal tap) and by culture of blood samples.
Treatment if Diagnosed
Treatment if Exposed
- Anyone who suspects possible exposure should consult a physician immediately. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy is frequently recommended after exposure.
Disease Prevention and Vaccine Information
- Groups with increased risk include
- Those living in group or crowded living situations, such as a college dormitory or military barracks
- People with concurrent or recent viral respiratory infections
- Individuals with active or passive exposure to smoking
- People with Immune deficiencies, those on medications that suppress immune functions, or patients without spleens
- Six meningococcal vaccines are available in the U.S.
- Three quadrivalent vaccines (effective against serogroups A,C,Y, and W-135)
- Menveo, Menactra, and Menomune)
- Bivalent meningococcal combination vaccine effective against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (effective against serogroups C and Y
- Two recombinant vaccines specific for serogroup B
- Trumenba and Bexsero
- You can reduce the risk for Meningococcal disease by avoid fluids from the nose or mouth, especially:
- Get Vaccinated
- Avoid droplets from sneezing and coughing
- Avoid kissing
- Do not share eating utensils or drink from the same beverage container
- Do not smoke, but if you do smoke, do not share cigarettes or marijuana
- Wash hands well and often
Locations in our Area to Receive the Vaccine
- For more information on Meningococcal Disease, please visit Michigan Department of Health and Human Services.
- Meningococcal Disease Information and Investigation Guidelines
- MDHHS Letter to College and University Leaders